Electronics

electronicelectronic deviceelectronic equipmentelectronic systemelectronic deviceselectronicallyelectricalelectronic productelectronic technologyelectronic systems
Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter.wikipedia
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Vacuum tube

vacuum tubestubethermionic valve
The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the invention of the vacuum tube, which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age. Until 1950 this field was called "radio technology" because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters, receivers, and vacuum tubes.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or valve (British usage) or, colloquially, a tube (North America), is a device that controls electric current flow in a high vacuum between electrodes to which an electric potential difference has been applied.

Electron

electronse − electron mass
Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter.
Electrons are involved in many applications such as electronics, welding, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors and particle accelerators.

Transistor

transistorstransistorizeddiscrete transistor
Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, optoelectronics, and sensors, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. In April 1955, the IBM 608 was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

Integrated circuit

integrated circuitsmicrochipchip
Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, optoelectronics, and sensors, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies.
ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics.

Optoelectronics

optoelectronicoptronicsopto-electronics
Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, optoelectronics, and sensors, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies.
Optoelectronics (or optronics) is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.

Amplifier

amplifiersamplificationamplified
The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the invention of the vacuum tube, which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age. This distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device.
The amplifying vacuum tube revolutionized electrical technology, creating the new field of electronics, the technology of active electrical devices.

Semiconductor

semiconductorssemiconductingsemiconductor material
Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit.
The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons, ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes, transistors and all modern electronics.

Electronic component

componentselectronic componentscomponent
Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed electronic components into a regular working system, called an electronic system; examples are computers or control systems.
An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.

Electrical network

circuitelectrical circuitelectric circuit
Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, optoelectronics, and sensors, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies.
A network that contains active electronic components is known as an electronic circuit.

Switch

switchestoggle switchelectrical switch
The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information-processing possible. Electrical and electromechanical science and technology deals with the generation, distribution, switching, storage, and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms (using wires, motors, generators, batteries, switches, relays, transformers, resistors, and other passive components).
These terms have given rise to abbreviations for the types of switch which are used in the electronics industry such as "single-pole, single-throw" (SPST) (the simplest type, "on or off") or "single-pole, double-throw" (SPDT), connecting either of two terminals to the common terminal.

Electricity

electricalelectricelectrically
Electrical and electromechanical science and technology deals with the generation, distribution, switching, storage, and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms (using wires, motors, generators, batteries, switches, relays, transformers, resistors, and other passive components).
electronics which deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies.

Transmitter

radio transmittertransmittersradio transmitters
Until 1950 this field was called "radio technology" because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters, receivers, and vacuum tubes.
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.

Lee de Forest

DeForestLee DeForestDe Forest
This distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device.
Although De Forest had only a limited understanding of how it worked, it was the foundation of the field of electronics, making possible radio broadcasting, long distance telephone lines, and talking motion pictures, among countless other applications.

Resistor

Resistor controlresistorsResistance
Electrical and electromechanical science and technology deals with the generation, distribution, switching, storage, and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms (using wires, motors, generators, batteries, switches, relays, transformers, resistors, and other passive components).
Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment.

Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computer
Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed electronic components into a regular working system, called an electronic system; examples are computers or control systems.
Colossus was the world's first electronic digital programmable computer.

Digital electronics

digital circuitdigitaldigital technology
1) Digital electronics
Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.

Electronic engineering

electronics engineeringelectronic engineerelectronics engineer
The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid-state physics, whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems come under electronics engineering.
Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components (such as semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits) to design electronic circuits, devices, VLSI devices and their systems.

Circuit design

electronic circuit design
4) Circuit design
The process of circuit design can cover systems ranging from complex electronic systems all the way down to the individual transistors within an integrated circuit.

Microelectronics

microelectronicmicro-electronicsmicro-
3) Microelectronics
Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics.

Semiconductor device

semiconductor devicessemiconductorsemiconductor electronics
8) Semiconductor devices
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor material, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.

Telecommunication

telecommunicationscommunicationstelecom
Electronics is widely used in information processing, telecommunication, and signal processing.
Sometimes, telecommunication systems are "duplex" (two-way systems) with a single box of electronics working as both the transmitter and a receiver, or a transceiver.

Triode

triode amplifiertriode tubevacuum triode
This distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device.
Its invention founded the electronics age, making possible amplified radio technology and long-distance telephony.

Calculator

pocket calculatorcalculatorselectronic calculator
In April 1955, the IBM 608 was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market.
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.

Engineering

engineerengineersengineered
This article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics.
The theoretical work of James Maxwell (see: Maxwell's equations) and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of electronics.

Analogue electronics

analoganalog circuitanalogue
2) Analogue electronics
Analogue electronics are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels.