Electrostatics

electrostaticelectrostatic repulsionelectrostatic interactionselectrostatic interactionelectrostaticallystatic electricityelectrostatic forcecoulombic attractionelectrostatic chargeelectrostatic potential
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.wikipedia
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Laser printing

laser printerlaser printerslaser
There are many examples of electrostatic phenomena, from those as simple as the attraction of the plastic wrap to one's hand after it is removed from a package to the apparently spontaneous explosion of grain silos, the damage of electronic components during manufacturing, and photocopier & laser printer operation.
Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.

Amber

amber fossilresiniteamber inclusion
Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials such as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing.
He also states that amber is also found in Egypt and in India, and he even refers to the electrostatic properties of amber, by saying that "in Syria the women make the whorls of their spindles of this substance, and give it the name of harpax [from ἁρπάζω, "to drag"] from the circumstance that it attracts leaves towards it, chaff, and the light fringe of tissues".

Electric charge

chargechargedelectrical charge
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
Charge is the fundamental property of forms of matter that exhibit electrostatic attraction or repulsion in the presence of other matter.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
Electrostatics deals with electric charges at rest, electrodynamics with moving charges, and magnetostatics with magnetic poles at rest.

Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
Even though electrostatically induced forces seem to be rather weak, some electrostatic forces such as the one between an electron and a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 36 orders of magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them.
This force binds the electrons inside an electrostatic potential well surrounding the smaller nucleus, which means that an external source of energy is needed for the electron to escape.

Magnetostatics

magnetostaticmagnetostatic fieldmagnetostatic energy
In some problems, both electrostatics and magnetostatics may be required for accurate predictions, but the coupling between the two can still be ignored.
It is the magnetic analogue of electrostatics, where the charges are stationary.

Divergence theorem

divergent-freeGaussGauss divergence theorem
The Divergence Theorem allows Gauss's Law to be written in differential form:
The divergence theorem is an important result for the mathematics of physics and engineering, in particular in electrostatics and fluid dynamics.

Contact electrification

contact tensioncontact potentialcontact electricity
This surface charge imbalance, which yields static electricity, can be generated by touching two differing surfaces together and then separating them due to the phenomena of contact electrification and the triboelectric effect.
In the late 18th century, scientists developed sensitive instruments for detecting 'electrification', otherwise known as electrostatic charge imbalance.

Poisson's equation

PoissonPoisson equationNewton–Poisson equation
This relationship is a form of Poisson's equation.
One of the cornerstones of electrostatics is setting up and solving problems described by the Poisson equation.

Coulomb's law

coulombelectrostatic forceCoulomb force
Such forces are described by Coulomb's law.
The last of these is the most important - it is known as the electrostatic approximation.

Electric potential

electrical potentialelectrostatic potentialpotential
Because the electric field is irrotational, it is possible to express the electric field as the gradient of a scalar function,\phi, called the electrostatic potential (also known as the voltage).
According to classical electrostatics, electric potential is a scalar quantity denoted by V or occasionally φ, equal to the electric potential energy of any charged particle at any location (measured in joules) divided by the charge of that particle (measured in coulombs).

Electrostatic generator

electrostatic machineinfluence machinefriction machine
Static electric generators, devices which produce very high voltage at very low current and used for classroom physics demonstrations, rely on this effect.
Electrostatic generators develop electrostatic charges of opposite signs rendered to two conductors, using only electric forces, and work by using moving plates, drums, or belts to carry electric charge to a high potential electrode.

Xerography

xerographicelectrophotographyxerographed
Static electricity is commonly used in xerography, air filters, and some automotive paints.
Carlson's innovation combined electrostatic printing with photography, unlike the dry electrostatic printing process invented by Georg Christoph Lichtenberg in 1778.

Electrostatic precipitator

electrostatic precipitatorselectrostatic precipitationprecipitator
Applications range from Electrostatic precipitator to Spray painting or Inkjet printing.
In 1907 Frederick Gardner Cottrell, a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, applied for a patent on a device for charging particles and then collecting them through electrostatic attraction—the first electrostatic precipitator.

Electrostatic voltmeter

electrostatic principle
Electrostatic voltmeter
Electrostatic voltmeter can refer to an electrostatic charge meter, known also as surface DC voltmeter, or to a voltmeter to measure large electrical potentials, traditionally called electrostatic voltmeter.

Spray painting

spray paintspray gunspray-paint
Applications range from Electrostatic precipitator to Spray painting or Inkjet printing.
In electrostatic spray painting or powder coating, the atomized particles are made to be electrically charged, thereby repelling each other and spreading themselves evenly as they exit the spray nozzle.

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

William ThomsonLord KelvinKelvin
William Thomson Kelvin (1872) Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism By William Thomson Kelvin, Macmillan
In the paper he made remarkable connections between the mathematical theories of heat conduction and electrostatics, an analogy that James Clerk Maxwell was ultimately to describe as one of the most valuable science-forming ideas.

Michael Faraday

FaradayFaraday, MichaelSir Michael Faraday
Before the year 1832, when Michael Faraday published the results of his experiment on the identity of electricities, physicists thought "static electricity" was somehow different from other electrical charges.
In 1832, he completed a series of experiments aimed at investigating the fundamental nature of electricity; Faraday used "static", batteries, and "animal electricity" to produce the phenomena of electrostatic attraction, electrolysis, magnetism, etc. He concluded that, contrary to the scientific opinion of the time, the divisions between the various "kinds" of electricity were illusory.

Classical physics

classicalclassical theoryclassically
Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials such as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing.

Triboelectric effect

triboelectrictribochargingtriboelectricity
Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials such as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing. This surface charge imbalance, which yields static electricity, can be generated by touching two differing surfaces together and then separating them due to the phenomena of contact electrification and the triboelectric effect.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
The Greek word for amber, ήλεκτρον, or electron, was the source of the word 'electricity'.

Force

forcesattractiveforce vector
Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other.

Electron

electronse − electron mass
Even though electrostatically induced forces seem to be rather weak, some electrostatic forces such as the one between an electron and a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 36 orders of magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them.

Proton

protonspH +
Even though electrostatically induced forces seem to be rather weak, some electrostatic forces such as the one between an electron and a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 36 orders of magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them.

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
Even though electrostatically induced forces seem to be rather weak, some electrostatic forces such as the one between an electron and a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 36 orders of magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them.