Elementary Education Act 1870

1870 Education ActEducation ActEducation Act of 18701870 Elementary Education ActElementary Education ActElementary Education Act of 1870Elementary Education BillEducation Bill1870Board Schools
The Elementary Education Act 1870, commonly known as Forster's Education Act, set the framework for schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales.wikipedia
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Joseph Chamberlain

ChamberlainJoseph The Right Honourable '''Joseph Chamberlain
In Birmingham, Joseph Chamberlain, not yet a Member of Parliament, was a prominent campaigner on the issue.
He was a radical Liberal Party member and an opponent of the Elementary Education Act 1870.

Liberal Party (UK)

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals
The law was drafted by William Forster, a Liberal MP, and it was introduced on 17 February 1870 after campaigning by the National Education League, although not entirely to their requirements.
One major achievement was the Elementary Education Act of 1870, which provided England with an adequate system of elementary schools for the first time.

William Edward Forster

William ForsterW. E. ForsterW.E. Forster
The law was drafted by William Forster, a Liberal MP, and it was introduced on 17 February 1870 after campaigning by the National Education League, although not entirely to their requirements. Lord Ripon (Lord President of the Council) and W.E.Forster (Vice-President of the Council) were responsible for education in the Gladstone government of 1868-74, and were keen to introduce a bill, as was Henry Bruce (Home Secretary).
The Elementary Education Bill was introduced on 17 February 1870 and school boards were set up with elected representatives (for example, Charles Reed in London) the same year where possible.

Education Act

education legislationElementary Education Acts
It was one of the Elementary Education Acts 1870 to 1893.
The Elementary Education Act 1870 (33 & 34 Vict c 75)

School boards in England and Wales

School Boardboard schoolschool boards
If there was a shortfall, a school board for the district would be created.
School boards were created in boroughs and parishes under the Elementary Education Act 1870 following campaigning by George Dixon, Joseph Chamberlain and the National Education League for elementary education free from Anglican doctrine.

William Ewart Gladstone

GladstoneWilliam GladstoneW. E. Gladstone
Lord Ripon (Lord President of the Council) and W.E.Forster (Vice-President of the Council) were responsible for education in the Gladstone government of 1868-74, and were keen to introduce a bill, as was Henry Bruce (Home Secretary).
In 1870, the Irish Land Act and Forster's Education Act.

Compulsory education

compulsorycompulsory schoolingmass education
One was because many people remained hostile to the idea of mass education.
In England and Wales, the Elementary Education Act 1870 paved the way for compulsory education by establishing school boards to set up schools in any places that did not have adequate provision.

National Education League

Birmingham Education LeagueNational Education League/Birmingham Education League
The law was drafted by William Forster, a Liberal MP, and it was introduced on 17 February 1870 after campaigning by the National Education League, although not entirely to their requirements.
In the end the Elementary Education Act 1870, which created school boards, was a compromise filling in the gaps of the voluntary system.

National school (England and Wales)

National SchoolNational SchoolsNational Society
Although Gladstone was sympathetic to the argument that better education had helped the Prussians to their unexpected victory over Austria in 1866 (as he remarked, "Undoubtedly, the conduct of the campaign, on the German side, has given a marked triumph to the cause of systematic popular education"), he was a devout Anglican and did not want to see the existing Church of England schools absorbed into any kind of National Education system.
The Education Act 1870 provided for the establishment of board schools to supplement those of the societies, and allowed for state funding of 50% of the running costs of voluntary schools, but phased out capital funding.

George Newnes

NewnesSir George NewnesGeorge Newnes Ltd
As a direct response to this Education Act, the founding father of British popular journalism, George Newnes, began his career in publishing in 1881 when he founded Tit-Bits.
He began his career in publishing in 1881 when he founded Tit-Bits as a direct response to the Elementary Education Act 1870 which introduced education for children aged 5–12 and hence produced a new young generation able to read.

Elementary Education Act 1880

Elementary Education ActEducation Act, 1880
Following continued campaigning by the National Education League, following the Elementary Education Act 1880, attendance to age 10 became compulsory everywhere in England and Wales.
The Elementary Education Act 1880 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which extended the Elementary Education Act 1870.

William Cowper-Temple, 1st Baron Mount Temple

William CowperHon. William CowperHon. William Cowper-Temple
As a compromise, Cowper-Temple (pronounced "Cooper-Temple"), a Liberal MP, proposed that religious teaching in the new state schools be non-denominational, ie. restricted in practice to learning the Bible and a few hymns.
Cowper-Temple was involved in the 1870 Education Act which set up Board Schools (state primary schools, run by elected local school boards) throughout England.

Cumulative voting

more than one representativemultiple-member districtsallocation voting
Board Members were elected by the ratepayers under a system of cumulative voting.
It was used in England between 1870 and 1902, under the Elementary Education Act 1870, to elect school boards.

Gladstonian liberalism

GladstonianGladstonian liberalGladstonian Liberals
The state (Gladstonian Liberalism) became increasingly involved and further acts in 1876 ("the Sandon Act", which gave parents a legal obligation to ensure that their children were educated) and 1880 ("the Mundella Act") made attendance compulsory for children until they were 10 years old, with various exemptions.
The Education Act of 1870 made universal schooling a major national policy.

Education Act 1902

1902 Education ActEducation Act of 1902Education Bill
The school boards were abolished by the Balfour Education Act 1902, which replaced them with around 300 local education authorities (LEAs), by which time there were 5,700 board schools (2.6 million pupils) and 14,000 voluntary schools (3 million pupils).
Under the 1902 Act the existing overlapping jurisdictions, with 2,568 school boards set up by the Elementary Education Act 1870, as well as all existing School Attendance Committees, were abolished.

Member of parliament

MPMemberMembers of Parliament
The law was drafted by William Forster, a Liberal MP, and it was introduced on 17 February 1870 after campaigning by the National Education League, although not entirely to their requirements.

Church of England

AnglicanChurchC of E
However, like many grassroots Liberals he opposed the bill because it was open to the possibility of subsidising Church of England schools with local ratepayers' money.

Rates in the United Kingdom

ratepayersratesbusiness rates
However, like many grassroots Liberals he opposed the bill because it was open to the possibility of subsidising Church of England schools with local ratepayers' money.

Reform Act 1867

Second Reform Act1867 Reform ActReform Act of 1867
The Act was passed partly in response to political factors (such as the need to educate the citizens recently enfranchised by the Reform Act 1867 to vote wisely).

State school

Publicpublic schoolpublic high school
There were objections to the concept of universal education.

Class consciousness

class-consciousclass conscioussocialist consciousness
They claimed it would make labouring classes 'think' and that these classes would think of their lives as dissatisfying and possibly encourage them to revolt.

Indoctrination

indoctrinatedindoctrinateindoctrinating
Others feared that handing children to a central authority could lead to indoctrination.

United Kingdom census, 1861

1861 census18611861 England and Wales Census
It had been deduced from census data that out of 4.3 million children of primary school age in England & Wales, 1 million were in purely voluntary (ie.

George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon

Lord RiponThe Marquess of RiponMarquess of Ripon
Lord Ripon (Lord President of the Council) and W.E.Forster (Vice-President of the Council) were responsible for education in the Gladstone government of 1868-74, and were keen to introduce a bill, as was Henry Bruce (Home Secretary).

Lord President of the Council

Lord PresidentThe Lord President of the CouncilShadow Lord President of the Council
Lord Ripon (Lord President of the Council) and W.E.Forster (Vice-President of the Council) were responsible for education in the Gladstone government of 1868-74, and were keen to introduce a bill, as was Henry Bruce (Home Secretary).