Elementary particle

elementary particlesparticleparticlesfundamental particlefundamental particleselementaryfundamentalelementary particle physicspoint particlesbasic elements
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle with no sub structure, thus not composed of other particles.wikipedia
532 Related Articles

Subatomic particle

subatomicparticlesubatomic particles
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle with no sub structure, thus not composed of other particles.
These may be composite particles, such as the neutron and proton; or elementary particles, which according to the standard model are not made of other particles.

Particle physics

high energy physicsparticle physicisthigh-energy physics
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle with no sub structure, thus not composed of other particles.
By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions.

Quark

quarksantiquarkantiquarks
Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions. Via quantum theory, protons and neutrons were found to contain quarks—up quarks and down quarks—now considered elementary particles.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

Lepton

leptonsantileptondilepton
Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions. Half of the fermions are leptons, three of which have an electric charge of −1, called the electron, the muon, and the tau, the other three leptons are neutrinos, which are the only elementary fermions with no electric or color charge.
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin 1⁄2) that does not undergo strong interactions.

Higgs boson

Higgs fieldHiggs particleGod particle
Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions. The Standard Model of particle physics contains 12 flavors of elementary fermions, plus their corresponding antiparticles, as well as elementary bosons that mediate the forces and the Higgs boson, which was reported on July 4, 2012, as having been likely detected by the two main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (ATLAS and CMS).
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics, produced by the quantum excitation of the Higgs field, one of the fields in particle physics theory.

Boson

bosonsBosonicinteger spin
Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions.
Bosons make up one of the two classes of particles, the other being fermions.

Electron

electronse − electron mass
Subatomic constituents of the atom were identified in the early 1930s; the electron and the proton, along with the photon, the particle of electromagnetic radiation.
Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure.

Photon

photonslight quantaincident photon
Subatomic constituents of the atom were identified in the early 1930s; the electron and the proton, along with the photon, the particle of electromagnetic radiation.
The photon is a type of elementary particle.

Fundamental interaction

fundamental forcesfundamental forcefundamental interactions
Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions.
The other three are discrete quantum fields, and their interactions are mediated by elementary particles described by the Standard Model of particle physics.

Gauge boson

gauge bosonsbosonforce carrier particles
Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions.
Elementary particles, whose interactions are described by a gauge theory, interact with each other by the exchange of gauge bosons—usually as virtual particles.

Fermion

fermionsFermionichalf-integer spin
Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions. The Standard Model of particle physics contains 12 flavors of elementary fermions, plus their corresponding antiparticles, as well as elementary bosons that mediate the forces and the Higgs boson, which was reported on July 4, 2012, as having been likely detected by the two main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (ATLAS and CMS).
A fermion can be an elementary particle, such as the electron, or it can be a composite particle, such as the proton.

Proton

protonsH + p
Subatomic constituents of the atom were identified in the early 1930s; the electron and the proton, along with the photon, the particle of electromagnetic radiation.
Protons were therefore a candidate to be a fundamental particle, and hence a building block of nitrogen and all other heavier atomic nuclei.

Up quark

upup antiquarkup quarks
Via quantum theory, protons and neutrons were found to contain quarks—up quarks and down quarks—now considered elementary particles.
The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

Matter

corporealsubstancematerial
Ordinary matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be elementary particles—atom meaning "unable to cut" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1910, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy.
In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent "size" or "volume" in any everyday sense of the word.

Down quark

downdown antiquarkdown quarks
Via quantum theory, protons and neutrons were found to contain quarks—up quarks and down quarks—now considered elementary particles.
The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

Spin (physics)

spinnuclear spinspins
And within a molecule, the electron's three degrees of freedom (charge, spin, orbital) can separate via the wavefunction into three quasiparticles (holon, spinon, orbiton).
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

Electromagnetic radiation

electromagnetic waveelectromagnetic waveselectromagnetic
Subatomic constituents of the atom were identified in the early 1930s; the electron and the proton, along with the photon, the particle of electromagnetic radiation.
In quantum mechanics, an alternate way of viewing EMR is that it consists of photons, uncharged elementary particles with zero rest mass which are the quanta of the electromagnetic force, responsible for all electromagnetic interactions.

Standard Model

standard model of particle physicsThe Standard ModelStandard Model of Physics
Around 1980, an elementary particle's status as indeed elementary—an ultimate constituent of substance—was mostly discarded for a more practical outlook, embodied in particle physics' Standard Model, what's known as science's most experimentally successful theory.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

Graviton

gravitonsanti-gravitonforce carrier of gravity
Meanwhile, an elementary boson mediating gravitation—the graviton—remains hypothetical.
In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical quantum of gravity, an elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity.

Neutron

neutronsfree neutronn
Via quantum theory, protons and neutrons were found to contain quarks—up quarks and down quarks—now considered elementary particles.
The finite size of the neutron and its magnetic moment both indicate that the neutron is a composite particle, as opposed to being an elementary particle.

Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
Ordinary matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be elementary particles—atom meaning "unable to cut" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1910, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy.
However, both protons and neutrons are composite particles composed of elementary particles called quarks.

ATLAS experiment

ATLASATLAS CollaborationATLAS detector
The Standard Model of particle physics contains 12 flavors of elementary fermions, plus their corresponding antiparticles, as well as elementary bosons that mediate the forces and the Higgs boson, which was reported on July 4, 2012, as having been likely detected by the two main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (ATLAS and CMS).
The experiment is designed to take advantage of the unprecedented energy available at the LHC and observe phenomena that involve highly massive particles which were not observable using earlier lower-energy accelerators.

Particle statistics

quantum statisticsstatisticsstatistical behaviour
These classes are distinguished by their quantum statistics: fermions obey Fermi–Dirac statistics and bosons obey Bose–Einstein statistics.
In classical mechanics, all particles (fundamental and composite particles, atoms, molecules, electrons, etc.) in the system are considered distinguishable.

Dark matter

dark matter detectiondark-mattermissing mass
In terms of number of particles, some estimates imply that nearly all the matter, excluding dark matter, occurs in neutrinos, which constitute the majority of the roughly elementary particles of matter that exist in the visible universe.
The primary candidate for dark matter is some new kind of elementary particle that has not yet been discovered, in particular, weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs).

Neutrino

neutrinosantineutrinoneutrino mass
Half of the fermions are leptons, three of which have an electric charge of −1, called the electron, the muon, and the tau, the other three leptons are neutrinos, which are the only elementary fermions with no electric or color charge.
A neutrino ( or ) (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.