Elisha Gray

GrayGray, Elisha
Elisha Gray (August 2, 1835 – January 21, 1901) was an American electrical engineer who co-founded the Western Electric Manufacturing Company.wikipedia
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Western Electric

Western Electric CompanyWestrexWestern Electric Manufacturing Company
Elisha Gray (August 2, 1835 – January 21, 1901) was an American electrical engineer who co-founded the Western Electric Manufacturing Company. In 1872 Western Union, then financed by the Vanderbilts and J. P. Morgan, bought one-third of Gray and Barton Co. and changed the name to Western Electric Manufacturing Company of Chicago.
On December 31, 1869, he entered a partnership with Enos M. Barton, and later sold his share to inventor Elisha Gray.

Invention of the telephone

inventor of the telephoneinvented the telephonepatent for the telephone
Gray is best known for his development of a telephone prototype in 1876 in Highland Park, Illinois.
Elisha Gray, of Highland Park, Illinois (near Chicago) also devised a tone telegraph of this kind about the same time as La Cour.

Alexander Graham Bell

BellGraham BellAlexander Bell
Some recent authors have argued that Gray should be considered the true inventor of the telephone because Alexander Graham Bell allegedly stole the idea of the liquid transmitter from him, although Gray had been using [[Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell telephone controversy#Use of liquid transmitters for telephone experiments.2C 1873-1876|liquid transmitters in his telephone experiments for more than two years previously]].
Orton had contracted with inventors Thomas Edison and Elisha Gray to find a way to send multiple telegraph messages on each telegraph line to avoid the great cost of constructing new lines.

Graybar

Graybar Electric CompanyGraybar ElectricGraybar Electric Co.
He was one of the founders of Graybar, purchasing a controlling interest in the company shortly after its inception.
In May 1869, Elisha Gray, an Oberlin College professor and inventor of telegraphic equipment, bought out Shawk's interest.

Acoustic telegraphy

harmonic telegraphAcoustic Telegraphharmonic (multi-signal) telegraphs
White wanted Gray to focus on the acoustic telegraph which promised huge profits instead of what appeared to be unpromising competing inventions such as the telephone, White made the decision in 1876 to redirect Gray's interest in the telephone.
Inventors who worked on the acoustic telegraph included Charles Bourseul, Thomas Edison, Elisha Gray, and Alexander Graham Bell.

Telautograph

In 1887 Gray invented the telautograph, a device that could remotely transmit handwriting through telegraph systems.
The telautograph's invention is attributed to Elisha Gray, who patented it on July 31, 1888.

Timeline of the telephone

chronicles the developmentexistence of a transatlantic telephoneon-or-off transmission methods

Patent caveat

caveat
A caveat was like a provisional patent application with drawings and description but without a request for examination.
Perhaps the most famous example of such a conflict was on 14 February 1876, when Elisha Gray filed a patent caveat and Alexander Graham Bell filed a patent application on the same day, both relating to the telephone.

Gray code

Gray codingGray code addressingGray codes
Some modern authors incorrectly attribute the Gray code to Elisha Gray, whereas it was actually named after Frank Gray.
The Gray code is sometimes attributed, incorrectly, to Elisha Gray.

International Electrical Congress

Congrès internationale des électricienselectrical congressesExposition internationale d'Électricité de Paris
Gray was also chairman of the International Congress of Electricians at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893.
Elisha Gray was the Congress president.

Water microphone

water transmitterliquid transmitterliquid transmitters
Elisha Gray reasoned that a metal rod vibrating up and down in acidulated water would alternately lengthen and shorten the small distance between the bottom end of the rod and a metal plate at the bottom of the glass container holding the water.

The Telephone Cases

Telephone Casesfoundational Bell telephone patentsnumerous legal challenges
Western Union advocated several more recent patent claims of Daniel Drawbaugh, Elisha Gray, Antonio Meucci and Philip Reis in a bid to invalidate Alexander Graham Bell's master and subsidiary telephone patents dating back to March 1876.

Electrical engineering

electrical engineerelectricalElectrical and Electronics Engineering
Elisha Gray (August 2, 1835 – January 21, 1901) was an American electrical engineer who co-founded the Western Electric Manufacturing Company.

Highland Park, Illinois

Highland ParkHighland Park, ILIllinois (Highland Park)
Gray is best known for his development of a telephone prototype in 1876 in Highland Park, Illinois.

Synthesizer

synthesizerssynthsynths
Gray is also considered to be the father of the modern music synthesizer, and was granted over 70 patents for his inventions.

Quakers

QuakerSociety of FriendsReligious Society of Friends
His family were Quakers.

Oberlin College

OberlinOberlin Collegiate InstituteOberlin College and Conservatory
He spent several years at Oberlin College where he experimented with electrical devices.

Telegraphy

telegraphtelegramcable
In 1865 Gray invented a self-adjusting telegraph relay that automatically adapted to varying insulation of the telegraph line.

Western Union

Western Union Telegraph CompanyAmerican Telegraph CompanyWestern Union Telegraph
In 1869, Elisha Gray and his partner Enos M. Barton founded Gray & Barton Co. in Cleveland, Ohio to supply telegraph equipment to the giant Western Union Telegraph Company. In 1872 Western Union, then financed by the Vanderbilts and J. P. Morgan, bought one-third of Gray and Barton Co. and changed the name to Western Electric Manufacturing Company of Chicago.

Anson Stager

General Anson StagerStager, Anson
In 1870 financing for Gray & Barton Co. was arranged by General Anson Stager, a superintendent of the Western Union Telegraph Company.

J. P. Morgan

J.P. MorganJ. Pierpont MorganJohn Pierpont Morgan
In 1872 Western Union, then financed by the Vanderbilts and J. P. Morgan, bought one-third of Gray and Barton Co. and changed the name to Western Electric Manufacturing Company of Chicago.

Electric instrument

electricelectric musical instrumentelectric musical instruments
This was one of the earliest electric musical instruments using vibrating electromagnetic circuits that were single-note oscillators operated by a two-octave piano keyboard.

First to file and first to invent

first to filefirst to inventfirst-to-invent
Such an interference would delay Bell's application until Bell submitted proof, under the first to invent rules, that Bell had invented that feature before Gray.