Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth IIthe QueenQueenQueen ElizabethPrincess ElizabethElizabeth II of the United KingdomHM The QueenHer Majesty the QueenHM Queen Elizabeth IIElizabeth
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is the queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.wikipedia
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Commonwealth realm

Commonwealth realmsrealmsCommonwealth
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is the queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in which Queen Elizabeth II is the reigning constitutional monarch and head of state.

Heir presumptive

heiress presumptiveheir-presumptiveheirs presumptive
Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive.
It is not assumed that the monarch and his or her consort are incapable of having further children; the day before Queen Elizabeth II ascended the throne, her father, George VI, was gravely ill and her mother was in her early 50s, but Elizabeth was still considered the heir presumptive rather than the heir apparent.

Prince Andrew, Duke of York

Prince AndrewThe Duke of YorkDuke of York
In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; Anne, Princess Royal; Prince Andrew, Duke of York; and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex.
He is the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon.
The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the world's longest-serving current head of state.

Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex

Prince EdwardThe Earl of WessexEarl of Wessex
In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; Anne, Princess Royal; Prince Andrew, Duke of York; and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex.
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, (Edward Antony Richard Louis; born 10 March 1964) is the youngest of four children and the third son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

State visit of Elizabeth II to the Republic of Ireland

Queen Elizabeth II's visit to the Republic of Irelandstate visit to Ireland2011 state visit
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes.
Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and her husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, made a state visit to the Republic of Ireland from 17 May to 20 May 2011, at the invitation of the President of Ireland, Mary McAleese.

Coronation of Elizabeth II

Coronation of Queen Elizabeth IIcoronationher coronation
Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, and 2012, respectively.
Elizabeth II ascended the throne at the age of 25 upon the death of her father, George VI, on 6 February 1952, being proclaimed queen by her privy and executive councils shortly afterwards.

Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II

Golden JubileeGolden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth IIQueen's Golden Jubilee
Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, and 2012, respectively.
The Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II was the international celebration held in 2002 marking the 50th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II to the thrones of seven countries, upon the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952, and was intended by the Queen to be both a commemoration of her 50 years as monarch and an opportunity for her to officially and personally thank her people for their loyalty.

Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II

Silver JubileeQueen's Silver JubileeSilver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II
Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, and 2012, respectively.
The Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II marked the 25th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession to the thrones of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms.

List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office

longest-serving current head of statehead of stateList of state leaders by date
She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch, as well as the world's longest-serving female head of state, oldest living monarch, longest-reigning current monarch, and the oldest and longest-serving current head of state.

New Zealand

NZLNZKiwi
When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general, currently Dame Patsy Reddy.

States headed by Elizabeth II

states headed by Queen Elizabeth II7 Statesdifferent independent states
Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence, and as realms, including South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (renamed Sri Lanka), became republics.
The number of states headed by Queen Elizabeth II has varied during her 0 years on the throne, altogether seeing her as sovereign of a total of 32 independent countries during this period.

British royal family

Royal FamilyroyalBritish
Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992, and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales.
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations.

List of oldest living state leaders

List of the oldest living state leadersOldest living former 1980s prime ministeroldest living former head of state or government
She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch, as well as the world's longest-serving female head of state, oldest living monarch, longest-reigning current monarch, and the oldest and longest-serving current head of state.
Leaders currently in office are in bold on purple, with Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia being the oldest currently-serving head of government and Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom being the oldest currently-serving head of state.

List of longest-reigning monarchs

longest-reigning queen regnantlongest reigning monarchslongest-reigning
She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch, as well as the world's longest-serving female head of state, oldest living monarch, longest-reigning current monarch, and the oldest and longest-serving current head of state.

Patriation

patriatepatriatedpatriating
She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, and the decolonisation of Africa.
A proclamation bringing the Constitution Act, 1982 into effect was signed by Elizabeth II, as Queen of Canada, then–Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and then-Minister of Justice Jean Chrétien on April 17, 1982, on Parliament Hill, in Ottawa.

List of monarchs in Britain by length of reign

longest-reigning British monarchlongest-reigning monarch of the United KingdomBritain's longest-reigning monarch
She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch, as well as the world's longest-serving female head of state, oldest living monarch, longest-reigning current monarch, and the oldest and longest-serving current head of state.
Queen Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning British monarch on 9 September 2015 when she surpassed the reign of her great-great-grandmother Victoria.

Lists of state leaders by age

93 years of ageoldestoldest currently serving state leader
She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch, as well as the world's longest-serving female head of state, oldest living monarch, longest-reigning current monarch, and the oldest and longest-serving current head of state.

Sapphire Jubilee of Elizabeth II

Sapphire JubileeSapphire Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth IISapphire Jubilee of ''Queen Elizabeth II
In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee.
The longest-reigning monarch in British history, Queen Elizabeth II is the first British monarch to have a sapphire jubilee.

Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne

14th Earl of Strathmore and KinghorneClaude Bowes-LyonEarl of Strathmore and Kinghorne
Her mother, the Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother), was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.
Claude George Bowes-Lyon, 14th and 1st Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, (14 March 1855 – 7 November 1944), styled as Lord Glamis from 1865 to 1904, was a British peer and landowner who was the father of Queen Elizabeth of the United Kingdom later known as The Queen Mother and the maternal grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II.

Annus horribilis

annus horibilishard yearparticularly trying year
Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992, and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales.
The expression was brought to modern prominence by United Kingdom's Queen Elizabeth II in a speech to Guildhall on 24 November 1992, marking the 40th anniversary of her accession, she said:

Head of the Commonwealth

HeadCommonwealthHeadship of the Commonwealth
When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon.
The title is currently held by Queen Elizabeth II, George VI's eldest daughter.

List of current reigning monarchs by length of reign

List of longest reigning current monarchslongest currently reigning monarchCurrent reigning monarchs by length of reign
She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch, as well as the world's longest-serving female head of state, oldest living monarch, longest-reigning current monarch, and the oldest and longest-serving current head of state.
Elizabeth II is the current longest-reigning monarch, having been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand since 6 February 1952.

Margaret Rhodes

Margaret ElphinstoneThe Hon. Margaret ElphinstoneMargaret, The Honourable Mrs Rhodes
Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved".
Margaret Rhodes (9 June 1925 – 25 November 2016) was a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II.

Heir apparent

heir-apparentheirs apparentheir
If her parents had had a later son, he would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession, which was determined by male-preference primogeniture.
For example, Queen Elizabeth II was heir presumptive during the reign of her father, King George VI, because at any stage up to his death, George could have fathered a legitimate son.