Elizabethan Religious Settlement

Religious SettlementElizabethan SettlementElizabethanestablishment of Protestantismnon-conforming1559 InjunctionsAct of UniformityActs of Supremacy and UniformityAnglican Settlementconflict between Catholics and the English Crown
The Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which was made during the reign of Elizabeth I, was a response to the religious divisions in England during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, and Mary I. This response, described as "The Revolution of 1559", was set out in two acts of parliament.wikipedia
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Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth IQueen Elizabeth IQueen Elizabeth
The Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which was made during the reign of Elizabeth I, was a response to the religious divisions in England during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, and Mary I.
This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England.

Edward VI of England

Edward VIKing Edward VIEdward
The Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which was made during the reign of Elizabeth I, was a response to the religious divisions in England during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, and Mary I.
During her reign, Mary reversed Edward's Protestant reforms, which nonetheless became the basis of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559.

Mary I of England

Mary IQueen MaryMary
The Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which was made during the reign of Elizabeth I, was a response to the religious divisions in England during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, and Mary I.
After Mary's death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn, at the beginning of the 45-year Elizabethan era.

Church of England

AnglicanChurchC of E
The Act of Supremacy of 1558 re-established the Church of England's independence from Rome, with parliament conferring on Elizabeth the title Supreme Governor of the Church of England (instead of Supreme Head) while the Act of Uniformity of 1559 outlined what form the English Church should take, including the re-introduction of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) which contained the liturgical services of the church modified in the 1559 version in a more Catholic direction regarding the doctrine of the Real Presence, permission to use the traditional vestments and liturgical furniture The BCP became the yardstick of Anglicanism, which came to see its identity mainly in liturgy and institutional continuity rather than in a systematic school or confessional theology; and also to a lesser extent as set forth in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Faith which sought to navigate a middle way (via media) between Roman Catholicism, Continental Protestantism and radical sects.
The Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach and the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed:

Anglicanism

AnglicandivineAnglicans
The Act of Supremacy of 1558 re-established the Church of England's independence from Rome, with parliament conferring on Elizabeth the title Supreme Governor of the Church of England (instead of Supreme Head) while the Act of Uniformity of 1559 outlined what form the English Church should take, including the re-introduction of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) which contained the liturgical services of the church modified in the 1559 version in a more Catholic direction regarding the doctrine of the Real Presence, permission to use the traditional vestments and liturgical furniture The BCP became the yardstick of Anglicanism, which came to see its identity mainly in liturgy and institutional continuity rather than in a systematic school or confessional theology; and also to a lesser extent as set forth in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Faith which sought to navigate a middle way (via media) between Roman Catholicism, Continental Protestantism and radical sects.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement.

William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley

William CecilLord BurghleySir William Cecil
Elizabeth relied primarily on her chief advisors, Sir William Cecil as her Secretary of State and Sir Nicholas Bacon as Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, for direction on the matter.
How far he was personally responsible for the Anglican Settlement, the Poor Laws, and the foreign policy of the reign, remains to a large extent a matter of conjecture.

Act of Supremacy 1558

Act of SupremacyActs of SupremacyAct of Supremacy of 1559
The Act of Supremacy of 1558 re-established the Church of England's independence from Rome, with parliament conferring on Elizabeth the title Supreme Governor of the Church of England (instead of Supreme Head) while the Act of Uniformity of 1559 outlined what form the English Church should take, including the re-introduction of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) which contained the liturgical services of the church modified in the 1559 version in a more Catholic direction regarding the doctrine of the Real Presence, permission to use the traditional vestments and liturgical furniture The BCP became the yardstick of Anglicanism, which came to see its identity mainly in liturgy and institutional continuity rather than in a systematic school or confessional theology; and also to a lesser extent as set forth in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Faith which sought to navigate a middle way (via media) between Roman Catholicism, Continental Protestantism and radical sects.
Along with the Act of Uniformity 1558 it made up what is generally referred to as the Elizabethan Religious Settlement.

Edmund Grindal

Bishop GrindalGrindalArchbishop Edmund Grindal
In 1560 Edmund Grindal, one of the Marian exiles now made Bishop of London, was allowed to enforce the demolition of rood lofts in London, and in 1561 the Queen herself ordered the demolition of all lofts, although she sometimes displayed a cross and candlesticks in her own chapel.
This was a time of great change in the English church following the Elizabethan settlement, which established the relationship of monarch, church, state and subjects, and required considerable statesmanship and diplomacy in the context of the many religious factions and the strong will of the monarch.

Mass (liturgy)

MassMassescommunion
The drafted Reformation Bill defined Holy Communion in terms of Reformed Protestant theology, as opposed to the transubstantiation of the Roman Catholic Mass, included abuse of the Pope in the litany, and ordered that ministers should wear the surplice only and not other Roman Catholic vestments.
From the time of the Elizabethan Settlement in 1559 the services allowed for a certain variety of theological interpretation.

Act of Uniformity 1558

Act of UniformityUniformity1558 Recusancy Acts
The Act of Supremacy of 1558 re-established the Church of England's independence from Rome, with parliament conferring on Elizabeth the title Supreme Governor of the Church of England (instead of Supreme Head) while the Act of Uniformity of 1559 outlined what form the English Church should take, including the re-introduction of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) which contained the liturgical services of the church modified in the 1559 version in a more Catholic direction regarding the doctrine of the Real Presence, permission to use the traditional vestments and liturgical furniture The BCP became the yardstick of Anglicanism, which came to see its identity mainly in liturgy and institutional continuity rather than in a systematic school or confessional theology; and also to a lesser extent as set forth in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Faith which sought to navigate a middle way (via media) between Roman Catholicism, Continental Protestantism and radical sects.
The Act was part of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement in England instituted by Elizabeth I, who wanted to unify the Church.

Transubstantiation

transubstantiatedtranssubstantiationconsecration
The drafted Reformation Bill defined Holy Communion in terms of Reformed Protestant theology, as opposed to the transubstantiation of the Roman Catholic Mass, included abuse of the Pope in the litany, and ordered that ministers should wear the surplice only and not other Roman Catholic vestments.
Elizabeth I, as part of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, gave royal assent to the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion, which sought to distinguish Anglican from Roman Church doctrine.

Puritan choir

J. E. Neale's "Puritan Choir" thesis claimed that a small bloc of radical Protestant representatives struggled for a more aggressive reform, and had a major influence on Elizabethan politics.
He stressed their importance in helping to shape the 1559 Elizabethan Religious Settlement more along the lines of Calvin's Geneva suggesting that 'the House of Commons went full-cry after its radical leaders, sweeping aside any feeble Catholic opposition.' They were also influential, he argues, in pushing for the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots and Elizabeth's naming of a successor.

A View of Popish Abuses Yet Remaining in the English Church

A View of Popish Abuses yet remaining in the English Church
A View of Popish Abuses was written by John Field in 1572, criticising the church services, priests and clergy of Elizabethan England, particularly the Elizabethan Religious Settlement.

Thomas Cranmer

CranmerArchbishop CranmerArchbishop
For example, when Thomas Cranmer wrote the 1549 Prayer Book, it contained the words "The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ which was given for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life."
When Elizabeth I came to power she restored the Church of England's independence from Rome under the Elizabethan Religious Settlement.

J. E. Neale

Sir John NealeJohn Ernest NealeJohn Neale
J. E. Neale's "Puritan Choir" thesis claimed that a small bloc of radical Protestant representatives struggled for a more aggressive reform, and had a major influence on Elizabethan politics.
Elizabethan Religious Settlement

Marian exiles

Marian exileexileexiles
The perceived alternative was having Puritan reforms forced on her by Marian exiles.
Elizabethan Religious Settlement

Oath of Supremacy

SupremacyOathOath of Allegiance
Oath of Supremacy
Elizabethan Religious Settlement

Vestments controversy

controversyvestiarian controversyAdmonition Controversy
Vestments controversy
Elizabethan Religious Settlement

Henry VIII of England

Henry VIIIKing Henry VIIIKing Henry VIII of England
The Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which was made during the reign of Elizabeth I, was a response to the religious divisions in England during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, and Mary I.

Lady Jane Grey

JaneQueen JaneJane Grey
The Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which was made during the reign of Elizabeth I, was a response to the religious divisions in England during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, and Mary I.

Catholic Church

CatholicRoman CatholicRoman Catholicism
The Act of Supremacy of 1558 re-established the Church of England's independence from Rome, with parliament conferring on Elizabeth the title Supreme Governor of the Church of England (instead of Supreme Head) while the Act of Uniformity of 1559 outlined what form the English Church should take, including the re-introduction of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) which contained the liturgical services of the church modified in the 1559 version in a more Catholic direction regarding the doctrine of the Real Presence, permission to use the traditional vestments and liturgical furniture The BCP became the yardstick of Anglicanism, which came to see its identity mainly in liturgy and institutional continuity rather than in a systematic school or confessional theology; and also to a lesser extent as set forth in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Faith which sought to navigate a middle way (via media) between Roman Catholicism, Continental Protestantism and radical sects.

Book of Common Prayer

Prayer Book1662 Book of Common Prayerprayer-book
The Act of Supremacy of 1558 re-established the Church of England's independence from Rome, with parliament conferring on Elizabeth the title Supreme Governor of the Church of England (instead of Supreme Head) while the Act of Uniformity of 1559 outlined what form the English Church should take, including the re-introduction of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) which contained the liturgical services of the church modified in the 1559 version in a more Catholic direction regarding the doctrine of the Real Presence, permission to use the traditional vestments and liturgical furniture The BCP became the yardstick of Anglicanism, which came to see its identity mainly in liturgy and institutional continuity rather than in a systematic school or confessional theology; and also to a lesser extent as set forth in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Faith which sought to navigate a middle way (via media) between Roman Catholicism, Continental Protestantism and radical sects.

Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist

real presencepresentReal Presence of Christ
The Act of Supremacy of 1558 re-established the Church of England's independence from Rome, with parliament conferring on Elizabeth the title Supreme Governor of the Church of England (instead of Supreme Head) while the Act of Uniformity of 1559 outlined what form the English Church should take, including the re-introduction of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) which contained the liturgical services of the church modified in the 1559 version in a more Catholic direction regarding the doctrine of the Real Presence, permission to use the traditional vestments and liturgical furniture The BCP became the yardstick of Anglicanism, which came to see its identity mainly in liturgy and institutional continuity rather than in a systematic school or confessional theology; and also to a lesser extent as set forth in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Faith which sought to navigate a middle way (via media) between Roman Catholicism, Continental Protestantism and radical sects.

Apostolic succession

apostolicepiscopal lineagesuccessors
Intent upon maintaining the three-fold ministry of deacon, priest and bishop in the apostolic succession, she chose Matthew Parker, a Cambridge University don (lecturer), priest and former vice-chancellor of the university, who was consecrated in December 1559 by four bishops.

Matthew Parker

Archbishop ParkerParkerArchbishop Matthew Parker
Intent upon maintaining the three-fold ministry of deacon, priest and bishop in the apostolic succession, she chose Matthew Parker, a Cambridge University don (lecturer), priest and former vice-chancellor of the university, who was consecrated in December 1559 by four bishops.