Emancipation Proclamation

emancipationemancipatedabolitionabolition of slaveryProclamationabolishedemancipation of slavesemancipation of the slavesa proclamationAmerican Emancipation
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln effective January 1, 1863.wikipedia
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Abraham Lincoln

LincolnPresident LincolnPresident Abraham Lincoln
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln effective January 1, 1863.
As the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863; ordering the Army to protect escaped slaves, encouraging border states to outlaw slavery, and pushing through Congress the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which outlawed slavery across the country.

Slavery in the United States

It changed the legal status under federal law of more than 3.5 million enslaved African Americans in the Confederate states from slave to free.
Due to Union measures such as the Confiscation Acts and Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, the war effectively ended slavery, even before ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, which in December 1865 formally ended the legal institution throughout the country.

Executive order

executive ordersExecutive order (United States)Presidential Executive Order
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln effective January 1, 1863.
According to the political scientist Brian R. Dirck, the most famous executive order was by President Abraham Lincoln when he issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863.

Confederate States of America

ConfederateConfederacyConfederate States
It changed the legal status under federal law of more than 3.5 million enslaved African Americans in the Confederate states from slave to free.
With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal (in addition to reunion).

Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Thirteenth Amendment13th AmendmentThirteenth
The remaining slaves, those in the areas not in revolt, were freed by state action, or by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in December 1865.
Though many slaves had been declared free by President Abraham Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, their post-war status was uncertain.

Presidential proclamation (United States)

presidential proclamationproclamationpresidential proclamations
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln effective January 1, 1863.
George Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793 and Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 are some of America's most famous presidential proclamations in this regard.

Border states (American Civil War)

border statesborder stateborder slave states
The Proclamation applied only to slaves in Confederate-held lands; it did not apply to those in the four slave states that were not in rebellion (Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and Missouri, which were unnamed), nor to Tennessee (unnamed but occupied by Union troops since 1862) and lower Louisiana (also under occupation), and specifically excluded those counties of Virginia soon to form the state of West Virginia.
Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to the border states.

American Civil War

Civil WarU.S. Civil WarUnited States Civil War
Against the background of the American Civil War, however, Lincoln issued the Proclamation under his authority as "Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy" under Article II, section 2 of the United States Constitution.
The Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, and four million black slaves were freed.

African Americans

African AmericanAfrican-Americanblack
The Proclamation lifted the spirits of African Americans both free and slave.
In 1863, during the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation.

Confiscation Acts

Confiscation ActconfiscatedConfiscation Act in July
The Proclamation followed a series of warnings in the summer of 1862 under the Second Confiscation Act, allowing Confederate supporters 60 days to surrender, or face confiscation of land and slaves.
The growing movement towards emancipation was aided by these acts, which eventually led to the Preliminary and Final Emancipation Proclamations of September, 1862 and January, 1863.

New Orleans

New Orleans, LouisianaNew Orleans, LAOrleans Parish
Also specifically exempted were New Orleans and 13 named parishes of Louisiana, which were mostly under federal control at the time of the Proclamation.
As a result, most of the southern portion of Louisiana was originally exempted from the liberating provisions of the 1863 "Emancipation Proclamation" issued by President Abraham Lincoln.

White supremacy

white supremacistwhite supremacistswhite supremacism
Socially, slavery was also supported in law and in practice by a pervasive culture of white supremacy.
The 1915 silent drama film The Birth of a Nation followed the rising racial, economic, political, and geographic tensions leading up to the Emancipation Proclamation and the Southern Reconstruction era that was the genesis of the Ku Klux Klan.


freedmenfreed slavesfreedwoman
The Proclamation did not compensate the owners, did not outlaw slavery, and did not grant citizenship to the ex-slaves (called freedmen).
Although the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 declared all slaves in states not under the control of the Union to be free (i.e. the Confederacy), it did not end slavery as an institution.


TNState of TennesseeTenn.
The state of Tennessee had already mostly returned to Union control, under a recognized Union government, so it was not named and was exempted.
When the Emancipation Proclamation was announced, Tennessee was largely held by Union forces.


abolitionistabolition of slaveryabolitionists
Ultimately, the Union victory brought the proclamation into effect in all of the former Confederacy.
On April 16, 1862, Abe Lincoln signed the District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act, abolishing slavery in Washington D. C. Later on, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order of the U.S. government issued on 1 January 1863, changing the legal status of 3 million slaves in designated areas of the Confederacy from "slave" to "free".

Lincoln's Gamble

In his 2014 book, Lincoln's Gamble, journalist and historian Todd Brewster asserted that Lincoln's desire to reassert the saving of the Union as his sole war goal was in fact crucial to his claim of legal authority for emancipation.
The work explores six months of Abraham Lincoln's presidency: the period between July 12, 1862 and January 1, 1863 when Lincoln penned the Emancipation Proclamation and changed the course of the Civil War.

Battle of Antietam

AntietamBattle of SharpsburgSharpsburg
In September 1862, the Battle of Antietam gave Lincoln the victory he needed to issue the Emancipation.
It was a sufficiently significant victory to give Lincoln the confidence to announce his Emancipation Proclamation, which, by freeing more than 3.5 million slaves in the Confederate states, began the process of emancipation of all remaining persons considered, legally, as slaves within the United States, and in doing so, discouraged the British and French governments, which were heavily opposed to slavery, and had in fact abolished slavery in their respective nations prior to the American Civil War, from pursuing any potential plans to recognize the Confederacy.

District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act

Compensated Emancipation Actabolished ownership of slaves in the entire Districtabolished slavery in the District of Columbia
With Congress' approval Lincoln in 1862, with partial compensation, ended slavery in the District of Columbia; this long-standing issue was now addressable since the Senators of the states in rebellion, who had blocked such a measure so as not to set a precedent, left Congress in 1861.
The passage of the Compensated Emancipation Act came nearly nine months before the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation.

William Weston Patton

William W. PattonWilliam Weston
A delegation headed by William W. Patton met the president at the White House on September 13.
Patton took an earnest part in the anti-slavery movement, and was chairman of the committee that presented to President Lincoln, 13 September 1862, the memorial from Chicago asking him to issue a proclamation of emancipation.

Edward Bates

Attorney-General BatesEdward
Late in 1862, Lincoln asked his Attorney General, Edward Bates, for an opinion as to whether slaves freed through a war-related proclamation of emancipation could be re-enslaved once the war was over.
He successfully carried out some of the administration's early war policies, but he objected to the Emancipation Proclamation and resigned from the Cabinet in 1864 after being passed over for a Supreme Court appointment.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
The United States Constitution of 1787 did not use the word "slavery" but included several provisions about unfree persons.
Though millions of slaves had been declared free by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, their post Civil War status was unclear, as was the status of other millions.

Confiscation Act of 1862

Second Confiscation Actconfiscation actFirst Confiscation Act
In July, Congress passed and Lincoln signed the Confiscation Act of 1862, containing provisions for court proceedings to liberate slaves held by convicted "rebels", or of slaves of rebels that had escaped to Union lines.
Section 13 of the act formed the legal basis for President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.

Thaddeus Stevens

Thad StevensU.S. Representative Stevens
In January 1862, Thaddeus Stevens, the Republican leader in the House, called for total war against the rebellion to include emancipation of slaves, arguing that emancipation, by forcing the loss of enslaved labor, would ruin the rebel economy.
Stevens quickly adopted the Emancipation Proclamation for use in his successful re-election campaign.

Contraband (American Civil War)

contrabandcontrabandscontraband of war
Prior to the Proclamation, in accordance with the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, escaped slaves were either returned to their masters or held in camps as contraband for later return.
In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation was read to the contrabands and free blacks there, for which the tree was named the Emancipation Oak.

Union (American Civil War)

Not included were the Union slave states of Maryland, Delaware, Missouri and Kentucky.
With the Emancipation Proclamation taking effect in January 1863, localities could meet their draft quota by sponsoring regiments of ex-slaves organized in the South.