Embryology

embryologistembryologicalembryologicEmbryologicallydevelopment anatomyIn the embryocomparative embryologydevelopmentdevelopment of our bodydevelopmental
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.wikipedia
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Cleavage (embryo)

cleavagespiral cleavageholoblastic
After cleavage, the dividing cells, or morula, becomes a hollow ball, or blastula, which develops a hole or pore at one end.
In embryology, cleavage is the division of cells in the early embryo.

Teratology

Dysmorphologyteratogenicteratogen
Additionally, embryology encompasses the study of congenital disorders that occur before birth, known as teratology.
With the growth of understanding of the origins of birth defects, the field of teratology overlaps with other fields of science, including developmental biology, embryology, and genetics.

Embryo

embryosembryonalhuman embryos
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
Therefore, according to one textbook, it is common for scientists interpret the scope of embryology broadly as the study of the development of animals.

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
Developmental biology, originated from embryology, studies the genetic control of cell growth, cellular differentiation, and "cellular morphogenesis," which is the process that progressively gives rise to tissues, organs, and anatomy.

Homology (biology)

homologoushomologyhomolog
The Estonian embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer stated what are now called von Baer's laws in 1828, noting that related animals begin their development as similar embryos and then diverge: thus, animals in the same family are more closely related and diverge later than animals which are only in the same order and have fewer homologies.

Karl Ernst von Baer

Karl BaerBaerKarl von Baer
Modern embryology developed from the work of von Baer, though accurate observations had been made in Italy by anatomists such as Aldrovandi and Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance. Karl Ernst von Baer and Heinz Christian Pander proposed the germ layer theory of development; von Baer discovered the mammalian ovum in 1827.
Baer was a naturalist, biologist, geologist, meteorologist, geographer, and a founding father of embryology.

Heinz Christian Pander

PanderChristian Heinrich PanderChristian Heinrich von Pander
Karl Ernst von Baer and Heinz Christian Pander proposed the germ layer theory of development; von Baer discovered the mammalian ovum in 1827. Other important contributors include William Harvey, Kaspar Friedrich Wolff, Heinz Christian Pander, August Weismann, Gavin de Beer, Ernest Everett Just, and Edward B. Lewis.
Heinz Christian Pander, also Christian Heinrich Pander (24 July 1794 – 22 September 1865), was a Baltic German biologist and embryologist.

Anatomical terms of location

ventraldorsalanterior
* Egg-polarity genes establish the Anteroposterior axis.
These two terms, used in anatomy and embryology, refer to back (dorsal) and front or belly (ventral) of an organism.

Preformationism

preformationpreformationistseminally present in the loins of Adam
The alternative theory, preformationism, that organisms develop from pre-existing miniature versions of themselves, however, held sway until the 18th century.
In 1651, William Harvey published On the Generation of Animals (Exercitationes de Generatione Animalium), a seminal work on embryology that contradicted many of Aristotle's fundamental ideas on the matter.

Embryological origins of the mouth and anus

distinction between
In bilateral animals, the blastula develops in one of two ways that divide the whole animal kingdom into two halves (see: Embryological origins of the mouth and anus).

Gavin de Beer

Embryos and AncestorsGavin Rylands de BeerSir Gavin de Beer
Other important contributors include William Harvey, Kaspar Friedrich Wolff, Heinz Christian Pander, August Weismann, Gavin de Beer, Ernest Everett Just, and Edward B. Lewis.
Sir Gavin Rylands de Beer (1 November 1899 – 21 June 1972) was a British evolutionary embryologist, known for his work on heterochrony as recorded in his 1930 book Embryos and Ancestors.

Caspar Friedrich Wolff

Kaspar Friedrich WolffC. F. WolffCaspar Wolff
Other important contributors include William Harvey, Kaspar Friedrich Wolff, Heinz Christian Pander, August Weismann, Gavin de Beer, Ernest Everett Just, and Edward B. Lewis.
Caspar Friedrich Wolff (18 January 1733 – 22 February 1794) was a German physiologist and one of the founders of embryology.

Joseph Needham

Needham, JosephNeedhamJoseph Terence Montgomery Needham
Modern embryological pioneers include Charles Darwin, Ernst Haeckel, J.B.S. Haldane, and Joseph Needham.
After graduation, Needham was elected to a fellowship at Gonville and Caius College and worked in Hopkins' laboratory at the University Department of Biochemistry, specialising in embryology and morphogenesis.

Evolutionary developmental biology

evo-devoevolutionary developmental biologistevolutionary development
Embryology is central to evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo"), which studies the genetic control of the development process (e.g. morphogens), its link to cell signalling, its roles in certain diseases and mutations, and its links to stem cell research.
The field grew from 19th-century beginnings, where embryology faced a mystery: zoologists did not know how embryonic development was controlled at the molecular level.

Ectoderm

ectodermalectodermal tissuesEmbryonic ectoderm

Morphogen

morphogensmorphogen gradientsinducing factors
Embryology is central to evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo"), which studies the genetic control of the development process (e.g. morphogens), its link to cell signalling, its roles in certain diseases and mutations, and its links to stem cell research.
She was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for her work explaining the morphogenic embryology of the common fruit fly.

Ernst Haeckel

HaeckelErnst Heinrich HaeckelHaeckel, Ernst
Modern embryological pioneers include Charles Darwin, Ernst Haeckel, J.B.S. Haldane, and Joseph Needham.
When Haeckel was a student in the 1850s he showed great interest in embryology, attending the rather unpopular lectures twice and in his notes sketched the visual aids: textbooks had few illustrations, and large format plates were used to show students how to see the tiny forms under a reflecting microscope, with the translucent tissues seen against a black background.

Marcello Malpighi

MalpighiMalpighi, MarcelloMarcello Malphigi
Much early embryology came from the work of the Italian anatomists Aldrovandi, Aranzio, Leonardo da Vinci, Marcello Malpighi, Gabriele Falloppio, Girolamo Cardano, Emilio Parisano, Fortunio Liceti, Stefano Lorenzini, Spallanzani, Enrico Sertoli, and Mauro Rusconi.

Edward B. Lewis

Ed LewisEdward LewisEdward B Lewis
Other important contributors include William Harvey, Kaspar Friedrich Wolff, Heinz Christian Pander, August Weismann, Gavin de Beer, Ernest Everett Just, and Edward B. Lewis.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.

-logy

-logia-ologylogy
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.

Prenatal development

prenatalperinatalfetal development
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.

Fertilisation

fertilizationconceptionfertilized
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.

Fetus

fetalfoetusfetuses
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.

Birth defect

congenitalcongenital disorderbirth defects
Additionally, embryology encompasses the study of congenital disorders that occur before birth, known as teratology.