A report on Saudi Arabia and Emirate of Diriyah

The maximum limits reached by the first Saudi state during the reign of Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in the year 1814.
Image of Abdullah bin Saud
Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The maximum limits reached by the first Saudi state during the reign of Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in the year 1814.
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

They founded a Second Saudi State that lasted until 1891, and later a third state, Saudi Arabia, which the Al Saud continue to rule up to the present day.

- Emirate of Diriyah

In 1727, the Emirate of Diriyah established in the area around Riyadh rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia, sacking Karbala in 1802, and capturing Mecca in 1803.

- Saudi Arabia

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Overall

Flag of Saud dynasty

House of Saud

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Flag of Saud dynasty
Genealogical table of the leaders of the Āl Saud
The maximum limits reached by the first Saudi state during the reign of Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in the year 1814.
Flag of the First and Second Saudi State
King Abdulaziz and Franklin D. Roosevelt in February 1945
U.S. President Barack Obama offers condolences on death of Saudi King Abdullah, Riyadh, 27 January 2015
Crown Prince and Defence Minister Mohammad with U.S. Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter, Pentagon, 13 May 2015
US President Donald Trump with the First Lady of the United States Melania Trump, King Salman of Saudi Arabia and Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi at the 2017 Riyadh summit.
U.S. President Jimmy Carter meets with King Khalid and Crown Prince Fahd in January 1978
Crown Prince Muhammad bin Nayef, Deputy Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman, Jared Kushner, Ivanka Trump, King Salman bin Abdulaziz and Melania Trump, Riyadh, 20 May 2017
Luxury yacht Kingdom 5KR owned by Saudi royal family, docked in Antibes, French Riviera
Royal Flag of the King
Demonstrators in Eastern Province during the 1979 Qatif Uprising
Journalist Jamal Khashoggi, murdered at Saud embassy in Turkey because of his opposition to the government
Loujain al-Hathloul, a Saudi citizen who was jailed after she drove a car in the country using her UAE license

The House of Saud (آل سُعُود ) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia.

It is composed of the descendants of Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the Emirate of Diriyah, known as the First Saudi state (1727–1818), and his brothers, though the ruling faction of the family is primarily led by the descendants of Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman, the modern founder of Saudi Arabia.

An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula circa. 1740s

Wahhabism

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Sunni Islamic revivalist and fundamentalist movement associated with the reformist doctrines of the 18th-century Arabian Islamic scholar, theologian, preacher, and activist Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (c.

Sunni Islamic revivalist and fundamentalist movement associated with the reformist doctrines of the 18th-century Arabian Islamic scholar, theologian, preacher, and activist Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (c.

An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula circa. 1740s
Usul al-Thalatha (Three Fundamental Principles), a pamphlet by Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
Document describing the historic meeting between Muhammad ibn Saud and Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
The First Saudi state (1744–1818)
The ruins of Dir'iyah, capital city of the First Saudi state
The Second Saudi state in 1850
Ibn Saud, the first king of Saudi Arabia circa. 1910
Soldiers of the Ikhwan army
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after unification in 1932
King Faisal with pan-Islamist leader Hajji Amin al-Husseini, former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem
Jamaat-e-Islami leader Abul A'la Maududi was influential in cementing the Islamist-Wahhabi alliance across South Asia
Dammam No. 7, the first commercial oil well in Saudi Arabia, which struck oil on 4th of March 1938
Mass demonstrations during the 1979 Iranian revolution
Smoke rising from the Grand Mosque during the assault on the Marwa-Safa gallery, 1979
Map of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, December 1979
Saudi Crown Prince Muhammad Bin Salman
An early photo of the Grand Mosque of Riyadh circa. 1922
Photo of a marketplace in the town of Al-Hasa circa. 1922
West Bay Skyline from Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque in Doha, Qatar
Muwahhidun (Wahhabi) movement is highly influenced by the doctrines of the classical Hanbali theologian Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328 C.E/ 728 A.H)
Fath al-Majid (Divine Triumph); an explanatory treatise on Kitab al-Tawhid (Book on Monotheism) by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Hassan Aal ash-Shaykh (1780–1868 C.E)
Compilation of ibn Mu'ammar's treatises and Legal verdicts published by Sayyid Rashid Rida in 1925-26 C.E
Photo of a group of Wahhabi soldiers dated 1935 C.E
British Expeditionary forces sacking the coastal city of Ras al-Khaimah in December 1809
Fall of Ras al-Khaimah to the British troops during the Persian Gulf Campaign of 1819
Portrait of a Wahhabi musketeer of Emirate of Diriyah

In 1744, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab formed a pact with a local leader, Muhammad bin Saud, a politico-religious alliance that continued for the next 150 years, culminating politically with the proclamation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.

By 2022, the decision to celebrate the "Saudi Founding Day" annually on 22 February to commemorate the 1727 establishment of Emirate of Dir'iyah by Muhammad ibn Saud, rather than the past historical convention that traced the beginning to the 1744 pact of Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab; have led to the official "uncoupling" of the religious clergy by the Saudi state.

Najd

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Map detailing the route of Khalid ibn Walid's conquest of Arabia
Najd superimposed over the modern political divisions of Saudi Arabia
Lake at the 120 km long Wadi Hanifa valley that cuts through Riyadh
The area of 'Uqdah on the outskirts of Ha'il
The An Nafud desert in the outskirts of Riyadh with the Jabal Tuwaiq in the background
Skyline of Riyadh in the late 2010s
Najd is home to numerous date farms and large agricultural areas.

Najd (نَجْدٌ, ), or the Nejd, forms the geographic center of Saudi Arabia, accounting for about a third of the country's modern population and, since the Emirate of Diriyah, acting as the base for all unification campaigns by the House of Saud to bring Arabia under a single polity and under the Salafi jurisprudence.

Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb's name in Islamic calligraphy

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab

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Arabian Islamic scholar, theologian, preacher, activist, religious leader, reformer, and theologian from Najd in central Arabia, considered as the eponymous founder of the Wahhabi movement.

Arabian Islamic scholar, theologian, preacher, activist, religious leader, reformer, and theologian from Najd in central Arabia, considered as the eponymous founder of the Wahhabi movement.

Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb's name in Islamic calligraphy
An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula (circa 1740s)
Usul al-Thalatha (Three Fundamental Principles), a pamphlet by Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
A 20th century illustration of the Pact of Dir'iyah
Emirate of Diriyah, the first Saudi state (1727–1818)
Kitab al-Tawhid (Book on Monotheism), the most popular treatise of Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque in Doha, the national mosque of Qatar
Unwan al-Majd fi Tarikh al-Najd by chronicler Uthman ibn 'Abdullah Ibn Bishr
A portrait of the entrance to the city of Diriyah

Despite his teachings being rejected and opposed by many of the most notable Sunni Muslim scholars of the period, including his own father and brother, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab charted a religio-political pact with Muhammad bin Saud to help him to establish the Emirate of Diriyah, the first Saudi state, and began a dynastic alliance and power-sharing arrangement between their families which continues to the present day in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Medina

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8th century rock inscription discovered in Madinah, refers to the city as 'Taybah'
17th century CE bronze token depicting prophet's Mosque, the inscription below reads 'Madinah Shareef' (Noble City)
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Three of the Seven Mosques at the site of the Battle of the Trench were combined into the modern Masjid al-Fath, here pictured with Jabal Sal'aa in the background and a shop selling local goods in the foreground.
The Green Dome was built in 1297 CE over Muhammad's rawdhah (residence) and site of burial.
The Gold dinar of Umar II, also known as 'Umar ibn Abdulaziz or the Fifth of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.
Tomb of Salahuddin al-Ayyubi, who started a tradition of greatly funding Medina and protecting pilgrims visiting the holy city.
The Medina sanctuary and Green Dome, photographed in 1880 by Muhammad Sadiq. The dome was built during the Mamluk period, but given its signature color by the Ottomans nearly 600 years later.
Muhammad Ali Pasha, who kept Medina in a peaceful and prosperous state for around 30 years after taking it from the First Saudi State.
The Hejaz railway track near Wadi Rum in Jordan. Jordan uses the railway today for transporting phosphate.
Medina from International Space Station, 2017. Note that North is to the right.
The train which Fakhri Pasha used to transport the Sacred Relics from Medina to Istanbul.
Mount Uhud at night. The mountain is currently the highest peak in Medina and stands at 1,077 m (3,533 ft) of elevation.
Panoramic view of the Prophet's Mosque, from the east at sunset.
Medina Sex Pyramid Chart as of 2018
Madinah Arts Center
Panel representing the Mosque of Medina. Found in İznik, Turkey, 18th century. Composite body, silicate coat, transparent glaze, underglaze painted.
Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz Airport
A government-run bus in Medina at Salam Rd. Station
Haramain high-speed railway station at Medina

Medina, officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (المدينة المنورة, ) and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (المدينة, ), is the second-holiest city in Islam, and the capital of the Medina Province of Saudi Arabia.

The region has been controlled by Jewish-Arabian tribes (up until the 5th century CE), the ʽAws and Khazraj (up until Muhammad's arrival), Muhammad and the Rashidun (622–660), the Umayyads (660–749), the Abbasids (749–1254), the Mamluks of Egypt (1254–1517), the Ottomans (1517–1805), the First Saudi State (1805–1811), Muhammad Ali Pasha (1811–1840), the Ottomans for a second time (1840–1918), the Sharifate of Mecca under the Hashemites (1918–1925) and finally is in the hands of the present-day Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1925–present).

Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")

Shia Islam

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Second-largest branch of Islam.

Second-largest branch of Islam.

Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")
ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is credited as the first male convert to Islam.
Jamkaran Mosque in Qom, Iran is a popular pilgrimage site for Shīʿa Muslims. Local belief holds that the 12th Shīʿīte Imam—the promised Mahdi according to Twelvers—once appeared and offered prayers at Jamkaran.
Shīʿa Muslims gathered in prayer at the Shrine of Imam Ḥusayn in Karbala, Iraq
Islam by country
 Sunnī
 Shīʿa
 Ibadi
Map of the Muslim world's schools of jurisprudence.
Names of the 12 Imams (descendants of Imam ʿAlī) written in the calligraphic form of the name ʿAlī in علي
Calligraphic representation of the 12 Imams along with the name of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Shāh Karim al-Husayni, known as the Aga Khan IV, is the 49th and current Imam of Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs.
Gold dinar of al-Ḥādī ila'l-Ḥaqq Yaḥyā, the first Zaydī Imam of Yemen, minted in 910–911 CE.
The Zaydī State of Yemen under the rule of Imam Al-Mutawakkil Ismāʿīl bin al-Qāsim (1644–1676)
The investiture of ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, 1308-1309 CE, Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)
Great Mosque of Kufa, site of ʿAlī's assassination (661 CE)
Ḍarīẖ over ʿAlī's qabr (grave), Sanctuary of Imām ʿAlī, Najaf (present-day Iraq)
Battle of Karbala, painting by the Isfahan-based Persian artist Abbas Al-Mousavi, Brooklyn Museum (between 1868 and 1933).
Zulfiqar with and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of ʿAlī's sword is carved on the gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr (shown below). Two swords were captured from the temple of the pre-Islamic Arabian deity Manāt during the Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. Muhammad gave them to ʿAlī, saying that one of them was "Zulfiqar", which became famously known as the sword of ʿAlī and a later symbol of Shīʿīsm.
Depiction of ʿAlī's sword and shield carved on the Bab al-Nasr gate wall in Cairo, Egypt
Sanctuary of Imam Reza in Mashhad, Iran, is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the 8th Imam of Twelver Shīʿas.
Ghazan and his brother Öljaitü both were tolerant of sectarian differences within the boundaries of Islam, in contrast to the traditions of Genghis Khan.
The Fatimid Caliphate at its peak
Al Hakim Mosque, Islamic Cairo.
One of Shah Ismail I of Safavid dynasty first actions was the proclamation of the Twelver sect of Shia Islam to be the official religion of his newly formed state, causing sectarian tensions in the Middle East when he destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa and the Sufi Abdul Qadir Gilani in 1508. In 1533, Ottomans, upon their conquest of Iraq, rebuilt various important Sunni shrines.
Shrine of Imam ʿAlī in Najaf, Iraq
The declaration of Shiism as the state religion of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.
Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran, where more than 7000 Muslims of Shia and Sunni sects were killed in battle.
Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, was a major sectarian crisis in the Middle East.

Saudi Arabia hosts a number of distinct Shīʿa communities, including the Twelver Baharna in the Eastern Province and Nakhawila of Medina, and the Ismāʿīlī Sulaymani and Zaydī Shīʿas of Najran.

In 1802, the Al Saud-Wahhabi armies of the Ikhwan from the First Saudi State (1727–1818) attacked and sacked the city of Karbala, the Shīʿa shrine in Najaf (eastern region of Iraq) that commemorates the martyrdom and death of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī.

Mecca

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Panorama of Mecca, 1845, from the Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage
The area surrounding the Haram Shareef.
The Hajj involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of Mina and Arafah
Jabal al-Nour, the mountain atop which is the Hira cave, where it is believed Muhammad received his first revelation.
The Quran Gate
Mecca as seen from the International Space Station
The al-'Aziziyah district of Mecca
Kaaba in July 2021, during COVID-19 restrictions.
Al-Haram Mosque and the Kaaba
Kaaba during expansion in 2013
Hajj terminal
Entry Gate of Mecca on Highway 40
Mecca Metro Route Map
Mecca, {{circa}} 1718 CE
Mecca, c. 1778 CE
Mecca, in the 1880s
Mecca in 1910
Pilgrims surround the Ka'bah in 1910
Makkah Al Mukarramah Library (21.425°N, 39.83°W) is believed to stand on the spot where Muhammad was born, so it is also known as Bayt al-Mawlid

Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah (مكة المكرمة, ) and commonly shortened to Makkah (مكة, ), is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam.

In 1803 the city was captured by the First Saudi State, which held Mecca until 1813.

Emirate of Nejd

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The Emirate of Nejd or Imamate of Nejd was the Second Saudi State, existing between 1824 and 1891 in Nejd, the regions of Riyadh and Ha'il of what is now Saudi Arabia.

Saudi rule was restored to central and eastern Arabia after the Emirate of Diriyah, the First Saudi State, having previously been brought down by the Ottoman Empire's Egypt Eyalet in the Ottoman–Wahhabi War (1811–1818).