Emotion

emotionsemotionalemotional statefeelingsemotional responseemotionallyhuman emotionlyricalfeelingemotive
Emotion is a mental state associated with the nervous system brought on by chemical changes variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or displeasure.wikipedia
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Suffering

paindistresssuffer
Emotion is a mental state associated with the nervous system brought on by chemical changes variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or displeasure.
The word suffering is sometimes used in the narrow sense of physical pain, but more often it refers to mental pain, or more often yet it refers to pain in the broad sense, i.e. to any unpleasant feeling, emotion or sensation.

Personality psychology

personalitypersonalitiespersonality theory
Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation.
"Personality" is an organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their environment, cognition, emotions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations.

Motivation

intrinsic motivationmotivationalmotives
Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation.
The definition of motivation as experienced desires and aversions highlights the association of motivation with emotion.

Mood (psychology)

moodmoodsatmosphere
Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Research on emotion has increased significantly over the past two decades with many fields contributing including psychology, neuroscience, endocrinology, medicine, history, sociology of emotions, and computer science.
Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, cognition, attention, emotion, intelligence, subjective experiences, motivation, brain functioning, and personality.

Functional accounts of emotion

function
The numerous theories that attempt to explain the origin, neurobiology, experience, and function of emotions have only fostered more intense research on this topic.
In other words, emotions are systems that respond to environmental input, such as a social or physical challenge, and produce adaptive output, such as a particular behavior.

Sociology of emotions

charactercultural factorssociology of emotion
Research on emotion has increased significantly over the past two decades with many fields contributing including psychology, neuroscience, endocrinology, medicine, history, sociology of emotions, and computer science.
The sociology of emotion applies sociological theorems and techniques to the study of human emotions.

International Affective Picture System

affective picture
In addition PET scans and fMRI scans help study the affective picture processes in the brain.
The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a database of pictures designed to provide a standardized set of pictures for studying emotion and attention that has been widely used in psychological research.

Contrasting and categorization of emotions

List of emotionsPlutchik's Wheel of Emotionscategorized
Emotions have been categorized, with some relationships existing between emotions and some direct opposites existing.
The contrasting and categorization of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other.

Affective neuroscience

affectiveneuroscienceaffective neuroscientist
In neuroscience sub-fields such as social neuroscience and affective neuroscience, scientists study the neural mechanisms of emotion by combining neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood.
Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
However some emotions, such as some forms of anxiety, are sometimes regarded as part of a mental illness and thus possibly of negative value.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

Joseph E. LeDoux

Joseph LeDouxLeDoux, Joseph.
In practical terms, Joseph LeDoux has defined emotions as the result of a cognitive and conscious process which occurs in response to a body system response to a trigger.
Joseph E. LeDoux (born December 7, 1949) is an American neuroscientist whose research is primarily focused on survival circuits, including their impacts on emotions such as fear and anxiety.

Disgust

revulsionloathingAppall
His research findings led him to classify six emotions as basic: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise.
Disgust (Middle French desgouster, from des- dis- + goust taste, from Latin gustus; akin to Latin gustare to taste) is an emotional response of rejection or revulsion to something potentially contagious or something considered offensive, distasteful, or unpleasant.

Fear

terrorapprehensionfears
His research findings led him to classify six emotions as basic: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.

Feeling

feelingssentimentgut feeling
The term emotion was introduced into academic discussion as a catch-all term to passions, sentiments and affections.
The word is also used to describe experiences other than the physical sensation of touch, such as "a feeling of warmth" and of sentience in general.

Affect (psychology)

affectaffectiveaffects
In the 2000s, research in computer science, engineering, psychology and neuroscience has been aimed at developing devices that recognize human affect display and model emotions.
Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experiencing of feeling or emotion.

Happiness

happyenjoymentJolly
His research findings led him to classify six emotions as basic: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise.
Happiness is used in the context of mental or emotional states, including positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.

Paul Ekman

EkmanDr. Paul Ekman
For more than 40 years, Paul Ekman has supported the view that emotions are discrete, measurable, and physiologically distinct.
Paul Ekman (born February 15, 1934) is an American psychologist and professor emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco who is a pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions.

Contentment

satisfactiondissatisfactioncomplacency
In addition to the original six, these studies provided evidence for amusement, awe, contentment, desire, embarrassment, pain, relief, and sympathy in both facial and vocal expressions.
Contentment is an emotional state of satisfaction that can be seen as a mental state, maybe drawn from being at ease in one's situation, body and mind.

Desire

desireslongingDesire (emotion)
In addition to the original six, these studies provided evidence for amusement, awe, contentment, desire, embarrassment, pain, relief, and sympathy in both facial and vocal expressions.
The same sense is expressed by emotions such as "craving".

Awe

In addition to the original six, these studies provided evidence for amusement, awe, contentment, desire, embarrassment, pain, relief, and sympathy in both facial and vocal expressions.
Awe is an emotion comparable to wonder but less joyous.

Passions (philosophy)

passionpassionsphilosophy of emotions
The term emotion was introduced into academic discussion as a catch-all term to passions, sentiments and affections.
The philosophical notion of passion, in contrast, is identified with innate or biologically driven emotional states regarded in ancient philosophies and the great religions as being the basis for deadly sins and seen as leading to various social and spiritual ills such as unstable relationships, broken marriages, lack of social integration, psychological disorders and other problems.

Embarrassment

embarrassingsocial awkwardnessembarrassed
In addition to the original six, these studies provided evidence for amusement, awe, contentment, desire, embarrassment, pain, relief, and sympathy in both facial and vocal expressions.
Embarrassment or awkwardness is an emotional state that is associated with mild to severe levels of discomfort, and which is usually experienced when someone has a socially unacceptable or frowned-upon act or condition that was witnessed by or revealed to others.

Boredom

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They also found evidence for boredom, confusion, interest, pride, and shame facial expressions, as well as contempt, interest, relief, and triumph vocal expressions.
In conventional usage, boredom is an emotional and occasionally psychological state experienced when an individual is left without anything in particular to do, is not interested in their surroundings, or feels that a day or period is dull or tedious.

Daniel Cordaro

In light of this, recent cross-cultural studies led by Daniel Cordaro and Dacher Keltner, both former students of Ekman, extended the list of universal emotions.
Daniel Cordaro is an American research scientist and psychologist who specializes in emotion psychology and human wellbeing.