Emperor

empressemperorsSamraatimperialSamratEmperor of Japanempress regnantImperial monarchSovereign Principality of Elba(Imperatritsa
An emperor (from imperator, via ) is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.wikipedia
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Empire

imperialempiresimperial power
An emperor (from imperator, via ) is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
An empire is a sovereign state functioning as an aggregate of nations or people that are ruled over by an emperor or another kind of monarch.

Queen consort

QueenconsortEmpress consort
Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), mother (empress dowager), or a woman who rules in her own right (empress regnant).
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king, or an empress consort in the case of an emperor.

Monarch

kingSovereignkings
An emperor (from imperator, via ) is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles – king or queen, prince or princess (e.g., Sovereign Prince of Monaco), emperor or empress (e.g., Emperor of China, Emperor of Ethiopia, Emperor of Japan, Emperor of India), archduke, duke or grand duke (e.g., Grand Duke of Luxembourg), emir (e.g., Emir of Qatar), sultan (e.g., Sultan of Oman), or pharaoh.

Imperial, royal and noble ranks

ranknoble titlehigh nobility
Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings.

Emperor of Japan

EmperorMonarchJapanese Emperor
The Emperor of Japan is said to be the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor
Currently, the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "emperor".

King

kingshipMaiRex
Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings.
The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc. The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.

Regalia

royal regaliacoronation regaliaroyal insignia
The importance and meaning of coronation ceremonies and regalia also varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the Pope, which meant the coronation ceremony usually took place in Rome, often several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne (as "king") in their home country.
The term can refer to the rights, prerogatives, and privileges that are held exclusively by any sovereign, regardless of title (emperor, grand duke, etc.).

Tsar

CzarRussian TsarTsars
However, the Russian emperors are better known by their Russian-language title of Tsar even after Peter the Great adopted the title of Emperor of All Russia in 1721. In 913, Simeon I of Bulgaria was crowned Emperor (Tsar) by the Patriarch of Constantinople and Imperial regent Nicholas Mystikos outside the Byzantine capital.
The term is derived from the Latin word caesar, which was intended to mean "emperor" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official (the Pope or the Ecumenical Patriarch)—but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank.

Soviet Empire

Soviet sphere of influenceSoviet imperialismSoviet
Sometimes this reference has even extended to non-monarchically ruled states and their spheres of influence such as the Athenian Empire of the late 5th century BC, the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenets and the Soviet and American "empires" of the Cold War era.
Although the Soviet Union was not ruled by an emperor and declared itself anti-imperialist and a people's democracy, critics argue that it exhibited tendencies common to historic empires.

Monarchy

kingdommonarchieskingdoms
When Republican Rome turned into a de facto monarchy in the second half of the 1st century BC, at first there was no name for the title of the new type of monarch.
For example, monarchs can carry titles such as king, queen, emperor, khan, caliph, tsar, or sultan, and can be bound to territories (e.g., the Emperor of Japan) or peoples (e.g., the King of the Belgians).

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
The first period of the Roman Empire, from 27 BC – AD 284, is called the principate for this reason.
It was ruled, not by emperors, but by annually elected magistrates (Roman Consuls above all) in conjunction with the Senate.

Caesar (title)

CaesarCaesarsKayser-i Rûm
Caesar (English pl. Caesars; Latin pl. Caesares) is a title of imperial character.

Habsburg Monarchy

Habsburg EmpireHabsburgAustria
Although technically an elective title, by the late 16th century the imperial title had in practice come to be inherited by the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and following the Thirty Years' War their control over the states (outside the Habsburg Monarchy, i.e. Austria, Bohemia and various territories outside the empire) had become nearly non-existent.

Emperor of Austria

EmperorAustrian EmperorEmperors of Austria
However, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French in 1804 and was shortly followed by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who declared himself Emperor of Austria in the same year.
Emperor of Austria,

Kaiser

German EmperorEmperorKaizer
Kaiser is the German word for "emperor".

King of Kings

RajadhirajaQueen of KingsShahanshah
Such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia and others, are often considered as the equivalent.
The title is commonly seen as equivalent to that of Emperor, both titles outranking that of king in prestige, stemming from the medieval Byzantine Emperors who saw the Shahanshahs of the Sasanian Empire as their equals.

Prince

princelyprincessovereign prince
One of these offices was princeps senatus, ("first man of the Senate") and became changed into Augustus' chief honorific, princeps civitatis ("first citizen") from which the modern English word and title prince is descended.
While this meant that offices, such as emperor, king, and elector could only be legally occupied by one dynast at a time, holders of such other titles as duke, margrave, landgrave, count palatine, and prince could only differentiate themselves by adding the name of their appanage to the family's original title.

Imperator

ImperatrixImperator AugustusRoman imperator
However, it was the informal descriptive of Imperator ("commander") that became the title increasingly favored by his successors.
The English word emperor derives from imperator via.

Princeps

princeps iuventutisFirst Citizenprinceps civitatis
One of these offices was princeps senatus, ("first man of the Senate") and became changed into Augustus' chief honorific, princeps civitatis ("first citizen") from which the modern English word and title prince is descended.
Princeps civitatis ("First Citizen") was an official title of a Roman Emperor as the title determining the leader in Ancient Rome at the beginning of the Roman Empire.

Autokrator

strategos autokratorautocratautocrator
In modern Greek, it means "emperor", and the female form of the title is autokrateira (αὐτοκράτειρα, autokráteira, "empress").

Khan (title)

KhanKhansKhan Bahadur
These included: Sultan, Khan, Sovereign of the Imperial House of Osman, Sultan of Sultans, Khan of Khans, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe, Protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem, Emperor of The Three Cities of Constantinople, Adrianopole and Bursa as well as many other cities and countries.
According to Vovin (2007, 2010) the term comes from qaγan (meaning emperor or supreme ruler) and was later used in several languages, especially in Turkic and Mongolic.

Dynasty

dynasticroyal housedynasties
The new imperial title may have sounded less prestigious than the old one, but Francis' dynasty continued to rule from Austria and a Habsburg monarch was still an emperor (Kaiser), and not just merely a king (König), in name.
The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "imperial", "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", "baronial" etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members.

Translatio imperii

successor
The Emperor of the Romans' title was a reflection of the translatio imperii (transfer of rule) principle that regarded the Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, despite the continued existence of the Roman Empire in the east.
Translatio imperii (Latin for "transfer of rule") is a historiographical concept, originating in the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of an imperium that invests supreme power in a singular ruler, an "emperor" (or sometimes even several emperors, e.g., the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Holy Roman Empire).

List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman SultanSultanSultan of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman rulers held several titles denoting their Imperial status.
After the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II, Ottoman sultans came to regard themselves as the successors of the Roman Empire, hence their occasional use of the titles Caesar (قیصر Qayser) of Rûm, and emperor, as well as the caliph of Islam.

Simeon I of Bulgaria

Simeon ISimeon the GreatSimeon
In 913, Simeon I of Bulgaria was crowned Emperor (Tsar) by the Patriarch of Constantinople and Imperial regent Nicholas Mystikos outside the Byzantine capital.
Halfway through his reign, Simeon assumed the title of Emperor (Tsar), having prior to that been styled Prince (Knyaz).