Emphasis (typography)

boldboldfaceemphasisbold typeemphasizeBoldfacingboldingemphasizeditalicB'''old
In typography, emphasis is the strengthening of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text, to highlight them.wikipedia
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Font

fontsoptical sizeoptical sizes
In typography, emphasis is the strengthening of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text, to highlight them.
Each style is in a separate "font file"—for instance, the typeface "Bulmer" may include the fonts "Bulmer roman", "Bulmer italic", "Bulmer bold" and "Bulmer extended"—but the term "font" might be applied either to one of these alone or to the whole typeface.

Small caps

small capitalssmall capital
Small capitals are also used for emphasis, especially for the first line of a section, sometimes accompanied by or instead of a drop cap, or for personal names as in bibliographies.
Small caps are used in running text as a form of emphasis that is less dominant than all uppercase text, and as a method of emphasis or distinctiveness for text alongside or instead of italics, or when boldface is inappropriate.

Sans-serif

sans serifgrotesquehumanist sans-serif
If the text body is typeset in a serif typeface, it is also possible to highlight words by setting them in a sans serif face.
Sans-serif fonts are sometimes, especially in older documents, used as a device for emphasis, due to their typically blacker type color.

Italic type

italicitalicsitalicized
A means of emphasis that does not have much effect on blackness is the use of italics, where text is written in a script style, or oblique, where the vertical orientation of each letter of the text is slanted to the left or right.
* Boldface

All caps

all-capsall capitalsall uppercase
In professional documents, a commonly preferred alternative to all caps text is the use of small caps to emphasise key names or acronyms (for example, ), or the use of italics or (more rarely) bold.

Serif

old-styleTransitionalserifs
If the text body is typeset in a serif typeface, it is also possible to highlight words by setting them in a sans serif face.
The period of Didone types' greatest popularity coincided with the rapid spread of printed posters and commercial ephemera and the arrival of bold type.

Capitalization

capitalizedcapitalisationmixed case
Of these methods, italics, small capitals and capitalisation are oldest, with bold type and sans-serif typefaces not arriving until the nineteenth century.
In professional documents, a commonly preferred alternative to all–caps text is the use of small caps to emphasize key names or acronyms, or the use of italics or (more rarely) bold.

Blackletter

Gothic scriptGothicblack letter
This is often used in blackletter typesetting and typewriter manuscripts, but by no means restricted to those situations.
Instead, they use letterspacing (German Sperrung) for emphasis.

Underscore

_underscoresLow line
Less commonly, underscores may be used, resembling underlining ("That was _really_ bad").
When the underscore is used for emphasis in this fashion, it is usually interpreted as indicating that the enclosed text is underlined (as opposed to being italicized or bold, which is indicated by /slashes/ or *asterisks*, respectively).

Letter-spacing

trackingfixed spacesletterspacing
This letter-spacing is referred to as sperren in German, which could be translated as "spacing out": in typesetting with letters of lead, the spacing would be achieved by inserting additional non-printing slices of metal between the types, usually about an eighth of an em wide.

Schwabacher

Martin Bormann issued a decree
Although letterspacing was common, sometimes different typefaces (e.g. Schwabacher inside Fraktur), underlining or colored, usually red ink were used instead.
After Schwabacher was displaced by Fraktur as the most-used German language type style from about 1530, it remained in common use as a secondary typeface for emphasis in a similar way to italic.

Clarendon (typeface)

ClarendonP. T. BarnumClarendons
Bold type did not arrive until the nineteenth century, and at first fonts did not have matching bold weights; instead a generic bold, sometimes a Clarendon or other kind of slab-serif, would be swapped in.
Slab serif typefaces had become popular in British lettering and printing over the previous thirty-five years before the original Clarendon’s release, both for display use on signage, architectural lettering and posters and for emphasis within a block of text.

Armenian alphabet

ArmenianArmenian scriptՀ
In Armenian the շեշտ (šešt) sign is used.

Fraktur

Fraktur scriptFraktur typefaceGerman Script
Although letterspacing was common, sometimes different typefaces (e.g. Schwabacher inside Fraktur), underlining or colored, usually red ink were used instead.

Asterisk

*starasterisks
In Internet usage, asterisks are sometimes used for emphasis (as in "That was *really* bad").

Highlighter

highlighter penhighlightingHi-Liter
Post-print emphasis added by a reader is often done with highlighters which add a bright background color to usual black-on-white text.

Typography

typographertypographictypographical
In typography, emphasis is the strengthening of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text, to highlight them.

Stress (linguistics)

stressstressedunstressed
It is the equivalent of prosodic stress in speech.

History of Western typography

Fell typesHistory of typographyHistory of typography, 20th century
The most common methods in Western typography fall under the general technique of emphasis through a change or modification of font: italics, boldface and.

Type color

colourbalance of colourblackness
Therefore, one can differentiate between types of emphasis according to whether the emphasis changes the "blackness" of text, sometimes referred to as typographic color.

Oblique type

obliqueobliquessloped roman
A means of emphasis that does not have much effect on blackness is the use of italics, where text is written in a script style, or oblique, where the vertical orientation of each letter of the text is slanted to the left or right.

Initial

initialsdrop capIlluminated capital
Small capitals are also used for emphasis, especially for the first line of a section, sometimes accompanied by or instead of a drop cap, or for personal names as in bibliographies.

Font superfamily

superfamiliessuperfamilyfont superfamilies
It is still possible using some font superfamilies, which come with matching serif and sans-serif variants, though these are not generally supplied with modern computers as system fonts.

Ming (typefaces)

MinchōMingSimSun
In Japanese typography, due to the reduced legibility of heavier Minchō type, the practice remains common.