Advanced centrilobular emphysema showing total lobule involvement on the left side
A woman smoking a cigarette, the most common method of tobacco smoking
Diagram of aveoli with emphysema
Aztec women are handed flowers and smoking tubes before eating at a banquet, Florentine Codex, 16th century.
CT scan of bullous emphysema
Gentlemen Smoking and Playing Backgammon in an Interior by Dirck Hals, 1627
Stained lung tissue from end-stage emphysema.
Bonsack's cigarette rolling machine, as shown on U.S. patent 238,640
A large bulla and a smaller bleb illustrated
A lengthy study conducted in order to establish the strong association necessary for legislative action (US cigarette consumption per person blue, male lung cancer rate brown)
Giovanni Battista Morgagni, who recorded one of the earliest descriptions of emphysema in 1769
Tendu Patta (Leaf) collection for Beedi industries
A graph that shows the efficiency of smoking as a way to absorb nicotine compared to other forms of intake.
Sigmund Freud, whose doctor assisted his suicide because of oral cancer caused by smoking
Common adverse effects of tobacco smoking. The more common effects are in bold face.
Skull with a burning cigarette, by Vincent van Gogh.
An enclosed smoking area in a Japanese train station. Notice the air vent on the roof.

Emphysema usually affects the middle aged or older population because it takes time to develop with the effects of tobacco smoking, and other risk factors.

- Emphysema

Tobacco use leads most commonly to diseases affecting the heart and lungs, with smoking being a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), emphysema, and various types and subtypes of cancers (particularly lung cancer, cancers of the oropharynx, larynx, and mouth, esophageal and pancreatic cancer).

- Tobacco smoking
Advanced centrilobular emphysema showing total lobule involvement on the left side

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Section of a lung showing centrilobular emphysema, with enlarged airspaces in the centre of a lobule usually caused by smoking and a major feature of COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Type of progressive lung disease characterized by long-term respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation.

Type of progressive lung disease characterized by long-term respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation.

Section of a lung showing centrilobular emphysema, with enlarged airspaces in the centre of a lobule usually caused by smoking and a major feature of COPD
Signs and symptoms of stages of COPD.
Access to clean fuel and clean cooking facilities as of 2016.
Normal lungs shown in upper diagram. Lungs damaged by COPD in lower diagram with an inset showing a cross-section of bronchioles blocked by mucus, and damaged alveoli.
Micrograph showing emphysema (left – large empty spaces) and lung tissue with relative preserved alveoli (right).
A person blowing into a spirometer. Smaller handheld devices are available for office use.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease deaths per million persons in 2012
Giovanni Battista Morgagni, who made one of the earliest recorded descriptions of emphysema in 1769
alt=A black and white image, with a small white heart in the middle and large black lungs around it|Chest X-ray demonstrating severe COPD: Note the small heart size in comparison to the lungs.
A lateral chest X-ray of a person with emphysema: Note the barrel chest and flat diaphragm.
Lung bulla as seen on chest X-ray in a person with severe COPD
A severe case of bullous emphysema
Axial CT image of the lung of a person with end-stage bullous emphysema
Very severe emphysema with lung cancer on the left (CT scan)

The two most common conditions of COPD are emphysema and chronic bronchitis, and they have been the two classic COPD phenotypes.

The most common cause of COPD is tobacco smoking.