Empire of China (1915–1916)

Empire of ChinaEmperor of ChinaEmpire of China (1915–16)Chinese EmpireEmperorYuan Shikai's empireYuan Shikai's monarchyaccession to the throneChinacrown himself emperor
The Empire of China was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916 to reinstate monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.wikipedia
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Republic of China (1912–1949)

Republic of ChinaChinaChinese
The attempt was ultimately a failure; it set back the Chinese republican cause by many years and fractured China into a period of conflict between various local warlords. After Yuan Shikai was installed as the second Provisional Great President of the Republic of China, he took various steps to consolidate his power and remove opposition leaders from office.
Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest.

Emperor of China

emperoremperors of ChinaChinese emperor
The Empire of China was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916 to reinstate monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
Yuan Shikai, former President of the Republic of China, attempted to restore a monarchy with himself as the Hongxian Emperor, however his reign as Emperor ended on 22 March 1916.

Monarchy

kingdommonarchieskingdoms
Around August 1915, he instructed Yang Du et al. to canvass support for a return of a monarchy.
Yuan Shikai, the first formal President of the Republic of China, crowned himself Emperor of the short-lived "Empire of China" a few years after the Republic of China was founded.

National Protection War

short-lived attempt22 March 1916Anti-Monarchy war
The revolters formed the National Protection Army and thus began the National Protection War.
The cause of the war was the proclamation by Yuan Shikai, the President of the Republic, of himself as the Hongxian Emperor, Emperor of the Empire of China.

Yuan Keding

Keding
On 12 December, Yuan, supported by his son Yuan Keding, declared the Empire of China with himself as the "Great Emperor of the Chinese Empire", taking the era name Hongxian (, "Constitutional Abundance").
In 1915 when his father Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself Hóngxiàn Emperor of the Empire of China, Yuan became crown prince as the Prince Yuntai,.

Warlord Era

warlordswarlordwarlordism
The attempt was ultimately a failure; it set back the Chinese republican cause by many years and fractured China into a period of conflict between various local warlords.
In December 1915 Yuan made clear his intentions to become emperor of China and found a new dynasty.

President of the Republic of China

PresidentPresident of TaiwanChairman of the National Government of China
After Yuan Shikai was installed as the second Provisional Great President of the Republic of China, he took various steps to consolidate his power and remove opposition leaders from office.
In 1915, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China in a largely unpopular move and was forced to retract his declaration shortly before his death in 1916.

Long Jiguang

After Yuan created the Empire of China, Long fought against the Guangxi warlords Lu Rongting and Li Liejun, who opposed Yuan's restoration of the monarchy.

Li Yuanhong

Li Yuan-hungLi Yuanhung
After Yuan's death on 6 June Vice President Li Yuanhong assumed the presidency, and appointed Beiyang general Duan Qirui as his Premier and restored the National Assembly and the provisional Constitution.
He refused for fear of his life but he also declined the aristocratic title of Prince granted by Yuan in the Empire of China (1915–16), a decision which would help his standing later on.

Feng Guozhang

Feng Kuo-chang
Feng broke with Yuan Shikai when he later attempted to make himself emperor.

Tang Xiangming

In December 1915, he supported Yuan Shikai's creation of the Empire of China (1915–1916).

Zhu Jiabao

Zhu Jiabao (1860 – September 5, 1923) was a Chinese monarchist politician who supported the creation of the Empire of China and the 1917 Manchu Restoration of Zhang Xun.

Liu Xianshi

Initially supporting Yuan Shikai and his declaration of the Empire of China, Liu joined Cai E and Tang Jiyao a month after the start of the National Protection War in rebelling against Yuan.

Ni Sichong

He was one of the handful of Beiyang generals who along with Yang Du and others supported Yuan Shikai's Empire of China during the National Protection War.

Twelve Symbols national emblem

Top: Emblem (1913–1928)Twelve Symbols
The Twelve Symbols national emblem was the state emblem of the Chinese Empire and the Chinese Republic from 1913 to 1928.

Duke Yansheng

Sacrificial Official to ConfuciusDuke Yansheng#Three Kingdo''Marquis who worships the sageDukes of Yansheng
Yuan Shikai conferred the title of Prince on the Duke immediately before declaring the Empire of China (1915–16).

Lu Jianzhang

From December 1915 to 1916, he fought in the National Protection War in defense of the Empire of China, but refused to support Zhang Xun's restoration of the Qing dynasty in July 1917.

Qu Yingguang

Qu Yinguang
He supported Yuan Shikai's restoration of the monarchy and the Empire of China (1915–1916).

Yuan Shikai

Yuan Shih-kaiYuan Shih-k'aiYuan Shi Kai
The Empire of China was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916 to reinstate monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor. After Yuan Shikai was installed as the second Provisional Great President of the Republic of China, he took various steps to consolidate his power and remove opposition leaders from office.
He was frustrated in a short-lived attempt to restore hereditary monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.

Zhang Mingqi

Chang Ming-ki
He supported Yuan Shikai's creation of the Empire of China.

Self-proclaimed monarchy

self-proclaimeddeclared himself emperorself-proclaimed king
In 1915, the president of China, Yuan Shikai, declared a restoration of the Chinese monarchy, with himself as emperor.

Cai Rukai

In December 1915, after Yuan Shikai's accession to the throne, Yuan conferred the title of "Barons of the First Rank" to him.