A report on Empire of Japan and Manchukuo

The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Manchukuo (burgundy) within the Empire of Japan (pink) at its furthest extent
The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
Location of Manchukuo (red) within Imperial Japan's sphere of influence (1939)
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Kangde
Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
Manchukuo (burgundy) within the Empire of Japan (pink) at its furthest extent
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
Members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere; territory controlled at maximum height. Japan and its allies in dark red; occupied territories/client states in lighter red. Korea and Taiwan were at that time considered integral parts of Japan and governed directly by the Japanese government, unlike client states such as Manchukuo that functioned under puppet governments.
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
The Japan–Manchukuo Protocol, 15 September 1932
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
The throne of the emperor of Manchukuo, c. 1937
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
Foreign recognition of Manchukuo represented by states in colors other than gray
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
Puyi as Emperor Kangde of Manchukuo
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
Propaganda poster promoting harmony between Japanese, Chinese, and Manchu. The caption says (Right to left): "With the cooperation of Japan, China, and Manchukuo, the world can be in peace."
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
Hideki Tōjō (right) and Nobusuke Kishi, the key architect of Manchukuo (1935–39), also known as the "Shōwa (Emperor) era monster/devil"
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
Map of Japanese Hokushin-ron plans for a potential attack on the Soviet Union. Dates indicate the year that Japan gained control of the territory.
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Map of Manchukuo
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
Administrative divisions of Manchukuo in 1938
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
A Manchukuo propaganda poster promoting displaying European and East Asian ethnic groups
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
The Empress of Manchukuo taking part in a procession during a visit by Japanese officials (1934)
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
Propaganda poster of the Manchukuo Government for the Western audience, featuring a couple of Japanese agrarian immigrants
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
Showa Steel Works in the early 1940s
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
Cavalry of the Manchukuo Imperial Army
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
A Type 41 75 mm mountain gun during an Imperial Army exercise
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
Manchukuo Imperial Air Force pilots, 1942, with a Nakajima Ki-27 behind
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
Poppy harvest in Manchukuo
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
National Diet Building, 1930
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Manchuria from 1932 until 1945.

- Manchukuo

Japan then established a puppet regime called Manchukuo, and installed the last Manchu Emperor of China, Puyi, as the official head of state.

- Empire of Japan

21 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Soviet gains in North East Asia, August 1945

Soviet invasion of Manchuria

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Soviet gains in North East Asia, August 1945
Basic map showing the Soviet invasion plan for Manchuria
An IJA Type 95 Ha-Go of the Manchuria Tank School
Manchurian offensive
Soviet troops crossing into Manchuria, 9 August 1945
Soviet troops enter the city of Harbin following its liberation on 21 August 1945
Soviet Red Army Martyrs Cemetery built in Manzhouli after the war

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian strategic offensive operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция) or simply the Manchurian operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.

It was the largest campaign of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War, which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930

World War II

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Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930
Adolf Hitler at a German Nazi political rally in Nuremberg, August 1933
Benito Mussolini inspecting troops during the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935
The bombing of Guernica in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, sparked fears abroad in Europe that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.
Japanese Imperial Army soldiers during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Red Army artillery unit during the Battle of Lake Khasan, 1938
Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured just before signing the Munich Agreement, 29 September 1938
German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (right) and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, after signing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, 23 August 1939
Soldiers of the German Wehrmacht tearing down the border crossing into Poland, 1 September 1939
Soldiers of the Polish Army during the defence of Poland, September 1939
Finnish machine gun nest aimed at Soviet Red Army positions during the Winter War, February 1940
German advance into Belgium and Northern France, 10 May-4 June 1940, swept past the Maginot Line (shown in dark red)
London seen from St. Paul's Cathedral after the German Blitz, 29 December 1940
Soldiers of the British Commonwealth forces from the Australian Army's 9th Division during the Siege of Tobruk; North African Campaign, September 1941
German Panzer III of the Afrika Korps advancing across the North African desert, April-May 1941
European theatre of World War II animation map, 1939–1945 – Red: Western Allies and the Soviet Union after 1941; Green: Soviet Union before 1941; Blue: Axis powers
German soldiers during the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Axis powers, 1941
Soviet civilians leaving destroyed houses after a German bombardment during the Battle of Leningrad, 10 December 1942
Japanese soldiers entering Hong Kong, 8 December 1941
The USS Arizona (BB-39) was a total loss in the Japanese surprise air attack on the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Sunday 7 December 1941.
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill seated at the Casablanca Conference, January 1943
Map of Japanese military advances through mid-1942
US Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign, in the Pacific theatre, 1942
Red Army soldiers on the counterattack during the Battle of Stalingrad, February 1943
American 8th Air Force Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombing raid on the Focke-Wulf factory in Germany, 9 October 1943
U.S. Navy SBD-5 scout plane flying patrol over USS Washington (BB-56) and USS Lexington (CV-16) during the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, 1943
Red Army troops in a counter-offensive on German positions at the Battle of Kursk, July 1943
Ruins of the Benedictine monastery, during the Battle of Monte Cassino, Italian Campaign, May 1944
American troops approaching Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944
German SS soldiers from the Dirlewanger Brigade, tasked with suppressing the Warsaw Uprising against Nazi occupation, August 1944
General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines during the Battle of Leyte, 20 October 1944
Yalta Conference held in February 1945, with Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 3 June 1945.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on 9 August 1945.
Ruins of Warsaw in 1945, after the deliberate destruction of the city by the occupying German forces
Defendants at the Nuremberg trials, where the Allied forces prosecuted prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany for crimes against humanity
Post-war border changes in Central Europe and creation of the Communist Eastern Bloc
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming the Israeli Declaration of Independence at the Independence Hall, 14 May 1948
World War II deaths
Bodies of Chinese civilians killed by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Nanking Massacre in December 1937
Schutzstaffel (SS) female camp guards removing prisoners' bodies from lorries and carrying them to a mass grave, inside the German Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 1945
Prisoner identity photograph taken by the German SS of a Polish Catholic girl who died in Auschwitz. Approximately 230,000 children were held prisoner and used in forced labour and Nazi medical experiments.
Polish civilians wearing blindfolds photographed just before their execution by German soldiers in Palmiry forest, 1940
Soviet partisans hanged by the German army. The Russian Academy of Sciences reported in 1995 civilian victims in the Soviet Union at German hands totalled 13.7 million dead, twenty percent of the 68 million persons in the occupied Soviet Union.
B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers on the Boeing assembly line in Wichita, Kansas, 1944
A V-2 rocket launched from a fixed site in Peenemünde, 21 June 1943
Nuclear Gadget being raised to the top of the detonation "shot tower", at Alamogordo Bombing Range; Trinity nuclear test, New Mexico, July 1945

From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan (along with other countries later on).

In 1931, an increasingly militaristic Empire of Japan, which had long sought influence in China as the first step of what its government saw as the country's right to rule Asia, staged the Mukden Incident as a pretext to invade Manchuria and establish the puppet state of Manchukuo.

Kwantung Army headquarters in Hsinking, Manchukuo

Kwantung Army

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General army of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1919 to 1945.

General army of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1919 to 1945.

Kwantung Army headquarters in Hsinking, Manchukuo
Kwantung Army on manoeuvres in 1941.
Kwantung Army in Mongolia during the Battle of Khalkhyn Gol, July 1939
Map of Japanese Hokushin-ron plans for a potential attack on the Soviet Union. Dates indicate the year that Japan gained control of the territory.
Repatriated Japanese soldiers returning from Siberia in 1946

The Kwantung Army was largely responsible for the establishment of the Japanese puppet-state of Manchukuo in Manchuria and functioned as one of the main Japanese fighting forces during the 1937–1945 Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937.

In 1895, Qing China had granted the Kwantung Leased Territory, a valuable concession territory on the Liaodong Peninsula, to the Empire of Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki after their victory in the First Sino-Japanese War.

Map of the Finnish Democratic Republic (1939–40), a short-lived puppet state of the Soviet Union. Green indicates the area that the Soviet Union planned to cede to the Finnish Democratic Republic, and red the areas ceded by Democratic Finland to the Soviet Union.

Puppet state

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State that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders.

State that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders.

Map of the Finnish Democratic Republic (1939–40), a short-lived puppet state of the Soviet Union. Green indicates the area that the Soviet Union planned to cede to the Finnish Democratic Republic, and red the areas ceded by Democratic Finland to the Soviet Union.
First French Empire and French satellite states in 1812
Map of the British Indian Empire. The princely states are in yellow.
Location of Manchukuo (red) within Imperial Japan's sphere of influence
Wang Jingwei receiving German diplomats while head of state in 1941
German-occupied Europe at the height of the Axis conquests in 1942
Abkhazian President Alexander Ankvab with Transnistrian President Yevgeny Shevchuk in 2013. Both Abkhazia and Transnistria have been described as puppet states of Russia.
Northern Cyprus in 2009
The greatest extent of the territory which the Soviet Union politically, economically and militarily dominated as of 1959–1960, after the Cuban Revolution but before the official 1961 Sino-Soviet split (total area: c. 34,374,483 km2)
Map of bantustans in South West Africa (present-day Namibia) as of 1978

During Japan's imperial period, and particularly during the Pacific War (parts of which are considered the Pacific theatre of World War II), the Imperial Japanese regime established a number of dependent states.

Manchukuo (1932–1945), set up in Manchuria under the leadership of the last Chinese Emperor, Puyi.

Japanese troops marching into Mukden on 18 September 1931

Japanese invasion of Manchuria

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Japanese troops marching into Mukden on 18 September 1931
Japanese soldiers of 29th Regiment on the Mukden West Gate
Map of the Manchukuo state in 1939

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.

At the war's end in February 1932, the Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo.

Map with historic extent of Manchuria. Inner Manchuria lies in Northeast China, coloured in red. Outer Manchuria to the north and the part today in Inner Mongolia to the west are in lighter red.

Manchuria

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Map with historic extent of Manchuria. Inner Manchuria lies in Northeast China, coloured in red. Outer Manchuria to the north and the part today in Inner Mongolia to the west are in lighter red.
One of the earliest European maps using the term "Manchuria" (Mandchouria) (John Tallis, 1851). Previously, the term "Chinese Tartary" had been commonly applied in the West to Manchuria and Mongolia
1900s map of Manchuria, in pink
Climate map of Manchuria or Northeast China.
Hailang River near Hailin City in Heilongjiang
A 12th-century Jurchen stone tortoise in today's Ussuriysk
The Three Kingdoms of Korea occupied roughly half of Manchuria, 5th century AD
The Mongol Yuan province of Liaoyang included northern Korea
Manchuria is the homeland of the Jurchens who became the Manchus.
A Jurchen man hunting from his horse, from a 15th-century ink-and-color painting on silk
The Manchu-led Qing dynasty circa 1820. Later Jin area in purple line
Map showing the original border (in pink) between Manchuria and Russia according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk 1689, and subsequent losses of territory to Russia in the treaties of Aigun 1858 (beige) and Peking 1860 (red)
Harbin's Kitayskaya Street (Russian for "Chinese Street"), now Zhongyang Street (Chinese for "Central Street"), before 1945
1940 Manchukuo visa issued at Hamburg
Map of Manchukuo (1933–1945)
Map of the three provinces of Northeast China (1911) {{sfnp|EB|1911}}
Map of Manchukuo and its rail network, c.{{nbsp}}1945
Map with the historic extent of Manchuria. Inner Manchuria lies in Northeast China, colored in red. Outer Manchuria to the north and the part today in Inner Mongolia to the west are in lighter red.

First used in the 17th century by the Japanese, it remains a common term elsewhere but is deprecated in the People's Republic China after 1949 due to its association with Manchurian nationalism and the breakaway of Manchukuo.

Manchukuo (1932–1945), a puppet state of Imperial Japan. Its occupied territories included the entire Northeast China, the northern fringes of present-day Hebei Province, and the eastern part of Inner Mongolia.

Puyi

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The last emperor of China as the eleventh and final Qing dynasty monarch.

The last emperor of China as the eleventh and final Qing dynasty monarch.

Painting portrait of Puyi, 1908
Silver coin: 1 yuan/dollar Xuantong 3rd year - 1911 Chopmark
Titular emperor Puyi in the Forbidden City
Gobulo Wanrong, Puyi's wife and Empress of China
Secondary consort Wenxiu
A photo taken of Puyi's bedroom in the Forbidden City shortly after being expelled
Puyi in the Garden of Serenity (靜園), as it looked in the late 1920s and early 1930s
Puyi, pictured with Wanrong
Puyi wearing the Mǎnzhōuguó uniform.
Puyi and Wanrong leaving their hotel on March 8 of 1932 before travelling to the official Manchukuo founding ceremony in Changchun
Manchukuo Enthronement Commemorative Medal
Puyi (right) as Emperor of Manchukuo. On the left is Chū Kudō.
Tan Yuling, Puyi's concubine
The site of Puyi's abdication in a small mining office complex in Dalizi
Puyi (right) and a Soviet military officer
Puyi's letters to Joseph Stalin
Fushun War Criminals Prison
Puyi in 1961, flanked by Xiong Bingkun, a commander in the Wuchang Uprising, and Lu Zhonglin, who took part in Puyi's expulsion from the Forbidden City in 1924.
In the spring of 1967, Pujie and Saga Hiro visited Puyi, who was by then seriously ill.
Puyi's tutor, Sir Reginald Johnston
Emperor Puyi shakes hands with Emperor Hirohito at Tokyo Station on 26 June 1940

He was later installed as the Emperor Kangde (康德) of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo during World War II.

Soviet Union

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Transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991.

Transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991.

The Soviet Union after World War II
Lenin, Trotsky and Kamenev celebrating the second anniversary of the October Revolution
The Soviet Union after World War II
The Russian famine of 1921–22 killed an estimated 5 million people.
Construction of the bridge through the Kolyma (part of the Road of Bones from Magadan to Jakutsk) by the workers of Dalstroy.
Five Marshals of the Soviet Union in 1935. Only two of them – Budyonny and Voroshilov – survived Great Purge. Blyukher, Yegorov and Tukhachevsky were executed.
The Battle of Stalingrad, considered by many historians as a decisive turning point of World War II.
From left to right, the Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill confer in Tehran, 1943.
Map showing greatest territorial extent of the Soviet Union and the states that it dominated politically, economically and militarily in 1960, after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 but before the official Sino-Soviet split of 1961 (total area: c. 35,000,000 km2)
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev (left) with US President John F. Kennedy in Vienna, 3 June 1961.
Nikolai Podgorny visiting Tampere, Finland on 16 October 1969
Soviet general secretary Leonid Brezhnev and US President Jimmy Carter sign the SALT II arms limitation treaty in Vienna on 18 June 1979
Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with US President Ronald Reagan
The Pan-European Picnic took place in August 1989 on the Hungarian-Austrian border.
T-80 tank on Red Square during the August Coup
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War
Internally displaced Azerbaijanis from Nagorno-Karabakh, 1993
Country emblems of the Soviet Republics before and after the dissolution of the Soviet Union (note that the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (fifth in the second row) no longer exists as a political entity of any kind and the emblem is unofficial)
Sukarno and Voroshilov in a state meeting on 1958.
1960s Cuba-Soviet friendship poster with Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet stamp 1974 for friendship between USSR and India as both nations shared strong ties, although India was a prominent member of Non-Aligned Movement
Gerald Ford, Andrei Gromyko, Leonid Brezhnev and Henry Kissinger speaking informally at the Vladivostok Summit in 1974
Mikhail Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush signing bilateral documents during Gorbachev's official visit to the United States in 1990
1987 Soviet stamp
Military parade on the Red Square in Moscow, 7 November 1964
The Grand Kremlin Palace, the seat of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, 1982
Nationalist anti-government riots in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 1990
A medium-range SS-20 non-ICBM ballistic missile, the deployment of which in the late 1970s launched a new arms race in Europe in which NATO deployed Pershing II missiles in West Germany, among other things
From left to right: Yuri Gagarin, Pavel Popovich, Valentina Tereshkova and Nikita Khrushchev at the Lenin's Mausoleum in 1963
Soyuz rocket at the Baikonur Cosmodrome
The DneproGES, one of many hydroelectric power stations in the Soviet Union
Picking cotton in Armenia in the 1930s
Workers of the Salihorsk potash plant, Belarus, 1968
Volzhsky Avtomobilny Zavod (VAZ) in 1969
Soviet stamp depicting the 30th anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency, published in 1987, a year following the Chernobyl nuclear disaster
Soviet stamp showing the orbit of Sputnik 1
Aeroflot's flag during the Soviet era
Population of the Soviet Union (red) and the post-Soviet states (blue) from 1961 to 2009 as well as projection (dotted blue) from 2010 to 2100
Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, visiting the Lviv confectionery, Ukrainian SSR, 1967
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
People in Samarkand, Uzbek SSR, 1981
Svaneti man in Mestia, Georgian SSR, 1929
An early Soviet-era poster discouraging unsafe abortion practices
Cover of Bezbozhnik in 1929, magazine of the Society of the Godless. The first five-year plan of the Soviet Union is shown crushing the gods of the Abrahamic religions.
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow during its demolition in 1931
A paranja burning ceremony in the Uzbek SSR as part of Soviet Hujum policies
World War II military deaths in Europe by theater and by year. Nazi Germany suffered 80% of its military deaths in the Eastern Front.
2001 stamp of Moldova shows Yuri Gagarin, the first human in space
People in Donetsk celebrate the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany, 9 May 2018
Soviet singer-songwriter, poet and actor Vladimir Vysotsky in 1979
Valeri Kharlamov represented the Soviet Union at 11 Ice Hockey World Championships, winning eight gold medals, two silvers and one bronze
One of the many impacts of the approach to the environment in the USSR is the Aral Sea (see status in 1989 and 2014)
Landscape near Karabash, Chelyabinsk Oblast, an area that was previously covered with forests until acid rainfall from a nearby copper smelter killed all vegetation
Ethnographic map of the Soviet Union, 1941
Ethnographic map of the Soviet Union, 1970

In the east, the Soviet military won several decisive victories during border clashes with the Empire of Japan in 1938 and 1939.

However, in April 1941, the USSR signed the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact with Japan, recognizing the territorial integrity of Manchukuo, a Japanese puppet state.

Red Army

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The army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

The army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Red Guards unit of the Vulkan factory
Hammer and plough cockade used by the Red Army from 1918 to 1922, when it was replaced by the hammer and sickle.
Leon Trotsky and Demyan Bedny in 1918
Vladimir Lenin, Kliment Voroshilov, Leon Trotsky and soldiers, Petrograd, 1921
Soviet tanks during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, August 1939
Red Army soldiers display a captured Finnish banner, March 1940
Soviet gun crew in action during the Siege of Odessa, July 1941
Salute to the Red Army at the Royal Albert Hall, London in February 1943
Ivan Konev at the liberation of Prague by the Red Army in May 1945
Marshals Zhukov and Rokossovsky with General Sokolovsky leave the Brandenburg Gate after being decorated by Field Marshal Montgomery
Red Army victory banner, raised above the German Reichstag in May 1945
Monument to the Red Army, Berlin
Roza Shanina was a graduate of the Central Women's Sniper Training School credited with 59 confirmed kills.
The Battle of Stalingrad is considered by many historians as a decisive turning point of World War II.
People in Saint Petersburg at «Immortal regiment», carrying portraits of their ancestors who fought in World War II.
Benjamin Netanyahu and Red Army's Jewish veterans, Victory Day in Jerusalem, 9 May 2017
Kursants (cadets) of the Red Army Artillery School in Chuhuyiv, Ukraine, 1933
Red Army Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky, who was executed during the Great Purge in June 1937. Here in 1920 wearing the budenovka
The unofficial Red Army flag, since the Soviet ground forces never had an official flag
Soviet officers, 1938

The Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, and its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan.

The Soviets and Japanese, including their respective client states of the Mongolian People's Republic and Manchukuo, disputed the boundaries and accused the other side of border violations.

FT-17 tanks captured by the Japanese after the September 18th Incident, September 19, 1931.

Mukden Incident

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False flag event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

False flag event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

FT-17 tanks captured by the Japanese after the September 18th Incident, September 19, 1931.
Japanese soldiers of 29th Regiment on the Mukden West Gate
Japanese experts inspect the "sabotaged" South Manchurian Railway.
A section of the Liǔtiáo Railway. The caption reads "railway fragment".
Chinese delegate addresses the League of Nations after the Mukden Incident in 1932.
The September 18th History Museum in Shenyang

On September 18, 1931, Lieutenant Suemori Kawamoto of the Independent Garrison Unit of the 29th Japanese Infantry Regiment (独立守備隊) detonated a small quantity of dynamite close to a railway line owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway near Mukden (now Shenyang).

The Imperial Japanese Army accused Chinese dissidents of the act and responded with a full invasion that led to the occupation of Manchuria, in which Japan established its puppet state of Manchukuo six months later.