A report on Empire of Japan and Meiji (era)

Meiji Constitution promulgation (1889)
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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The fifteen-year-old Meiji Emperor, moving from Kyoto to Tokyo at the end of 1868, after the fall of Edo
The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
Emperor Meiji in his fifties.
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Interior of House of Peers, showing Minister speaking at the tribune from which members address the House.
Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
Ceremony for the Promulgation of the Constitution by Wada Eisaku, showing the Emperor presenting the Constitution to Prime Minister Kuroda Kiyotaka at a ceremony in the Imperial Palace on 11 February 1889 (Meiji Memorial Picture Gallery)
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
Ginza in 1880s.
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
Display of a painting of a nude, Kuroda Seiki's Morning Toilette, at the Fourth National Industrial Exhibition in 1895 caused a stir, captured by Bigot
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
Outer kimono for a woman (uchikake) with hanging scroll motifs, 1880–1890
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
Hokkaidō Development Commission Sapporo Main Office (Historical Village of Hokkaido)
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
1907 Tokyo Industrial Exhibition
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
Tsuruma Park, 1910; in January 1873 the Dajō-kan issued a notice providing for the establishment of public parks, that of Ueno Park following shortly after
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
Japanese soldiers in front of Kankaimon gate at Shuri Castle at the time of the so-called Ryūkyū Disposition
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
Marquis Saigo Tsugumichi commanded Japanese expeditionary forces as a lieutenant-general in the Taiwan Expedition.
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
Commander-in-chief Saigō Tsugumichi pictured with leaders of Seqalu (Native tribe) in Taiwan Expedition 1874.
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Photograph of Atayal men taken by Torii Ryūzō in 1900.
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
A map of the Japanese Empire dating to 1895. This map was issued shortly after the 1895 Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan and as a possession of Imperial Japan.
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
Mythical group in bronze by Otake Koriyuni, the Khalili Collection of Japanese Art
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
Flower and bird pattern vase, by Namikawa Yasuyuki
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
"Waves" maki-e panel by Shibata Zeshin, 1888-1890
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
One of the Twelve Hawks by Suzuki Chokichi, 1893, bronze, lacquer, casting, gilding, and inlay
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
Earthenware bowl by Yabu Meizan, circa 1910
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
Basket of Flowers. circa 1900. Khalili Collection of Japanese Art.
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
A composite imaginary view of Japan: textile artwork
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
Byōbu Dragon and tiger (竜虎図) left side, 1895, by Hashimoto Gahō
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
Byōbu Dragon and tiger right side, 1895, by Hashimoto Gahō
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
National Diet Building, 1930
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

The Meiji era was the first half of the Empire of Japan, when the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonization by Western powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialized nation state and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, technological, philosophical, political, legal, and aesthetic ideas.

- Meiji (era)

Under the slogans of fukoku kyōhei (富国強兵) and shokusan kōgyō, (殖産興業) Japan underwent a period of industrialization and militarization, the Meiji Restoration being the fastest modernisation of any country to date, all of these aspects contributed to Japan's emergence as a great power and the establishment of a colonial empire following the First Sino-Japanese War, the Boxer Rebellion, the Russo-Japanese War, and World War I.

- Empire of Japan

18 related topics with Alpha

Overall

On the far left is Ito Hirobumi of Choshu Domain, and on the far right is Okubo Toshimichi of Satsuma Domain. The two young men in the middle are the sons of the Satsuma clan daimyo. These young samurai contributed to the resignation of the Tokugawa shogunate to restore imperial rule.

Meiji Restoration

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Political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

Political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

On the far left is Ito Hirobumi of Choshu Domain, and on the far right is Okubo Toshimichi of Satsuma Domain. The two young men in the middle are the sons of the Satsuma clan daimyo. These young samurai contributed to the resignation of the Tokugawa shogunate to restore imperial rule.
A teenage Emperor Meiji with foreign representatives at the end of the Boshin War, 1868–1870.
The Tokyo Koishikawa Arsenal was established in 1871.
Allegory of the New fighting the Old, in early Japan Meiji, around 1870

The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanned both the late Edo period (often called the Bakumatsu) and the beginning of the Meiji era, during which time Japan rapidly industrialized and adopted Western ideas and production methods.

The ideal of samurai military spirit lived on in romanticized form and was often used as propaganda during the early 20th-century wars of the Empire of Japan.

Itō Hirobumi in 1909

Itō Hirobumi

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Japanese politician and statesman who served as the first Prime Minister of Japan.

Japanese politician and statesman who served as the first Prime Minister of Japan.

Itō Hirobumi in 1909
Itō Hirobumi in 1909
Itō Hirobumi as a samurai in his youth.
Photo of Itō (fourth from right--standing) alongside other members of the Iwakura mission
Itō Hirobumi as prime minister (c.1880s.)
Itō in the later years of his political career.
Prince Itō and the Crown Prince of Korea Yi Un
A Series C 1,000 yen note of Japan, with a portrait of Itō Hirobumi.

He was also a leading member of the genrō, a group of senior statesmen that dictated Japanese policy during the Meiji era.

A London-educated samurai of the Chōshū Domain and a central figure in the Meiji Restoration, Itō Hirobumi chaired the bureau which drafted the Constitution for the newly formed Empire of Japan.

Map of the campaign

Satsuma Rebellion

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Map of the campaign
Saigō Takamori (seated, in French uniform), surrounded by his officers, in traditional attire. News article in Le Monde illustré, 1877
Imperial Japanese Army officers of the Kumamoto garrison, who resisted Saigō Takamori's siege, 1877
The clash at Kagoshima
Imperial troops embarking at Yokohama to fight the Satsuma rebellion in 1877.
Shinohara Kunimoto
Battle of Shiroyama.
Imperial Japanese Army fortifications encircling Shiroyama. 1877 photograph.
Samurai fighting the Imperial army during the Subjugation of Kagoshima in Sasshu (Satsuma), by Yoshitoshi, 1877
Soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Satsuma Rebellion.
Kagoshima boto shutsujinzu by Yoshitoshi
Kumamoto Castle
Saigō Takamori Gunmusho (軍務所) banknote, issued in 1877 to finance his war effort. Japan Currency Museum.
Battle of Tabaruzaka: Imperial troops on the left, rebel samurai troops on the right
Battle of Tabaruzaka
Saigo's army clashes with the government's forces

The Satsuma Rebellion, also known as the Seinan War (西南戦争) was a revolt of disaffected samurai against the new imperial government, nine years into the Meiji Era.

Saigō's rebellion was the last and most serious of a series of armed uprisings against the new government of the Empire of Japan, the predecessor state to modern Japan.

Portrait by Edoardo Chiossone (1888)

Emperor Meiji

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The 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession.

The 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession.

Portrait by Edoardo Chiossone (1888)
Emperor Meiji wearing the sokutai, 1872
Emperor Meiji in 1873
Silver coin: 1 Japanese Trade Dollar, Meiji 9 - 1876
First-ever photograph of Emperor Meiji at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal by Raimund von Stillfried on Jan 1, 1872.
The sixteen-year-old Emperor, traveling from Kyoto to Tokyo at the end of 1868
Emperor Meiji in later life. Emperor Meiji wore a large beard in his later years, which is his well-known image. Having the beard was to cover his facial defects of mandibular protrusion caused by genetic diseases.
Illustration of Emperor Meiji by The Illustrated London News, published in the New-York Tribune (1905)
A portrait of Emperor Meiji in his older years from The Spell of Japan (1914) by Isabel Weld Perkins
Emperor Meiji's last exercise supervision
Funeral of Emperor Meiji, 1912
French envoys received by Count Akiyama Yoshifuru (front left) at the funeral of Emperor Meiji.
A bronze statue of Meiji Emperor
Studio still snap from the 1957 Japanese film "Meiji Tenno to Nichiro Daisenso (Emperor Meiji and the Great Russo-Japanese War)"(Shintoho). Emperor Meiji of Kanjūrō Arashi.
The Triumphal Grand Army Review by Kobayashi Mango
Conference on Drafting a Constitution by Goseda Horyu
Visiting a Silver Mine by Gomi Seikichi
Chrysanthemum Garden Party by Nakazawa Hiromitsu
Ceremony for the Promulgation of the Constitution by Wada Eisaku
Emperor at Imperial Headquarters by Minami Kunzo
Chiefs of sixteen countries in a gathering envisage a desirable future world.
Meiji Memorial Picture Gallery

Reigning from 3 February 1867 until his death on 30 July 1912, and the first monarch of the Empire of Japan, he presided over the Meiji era, and was the figurehead of the Meiji Restoration, a series of rapid changes that witnessed Japan's transformation from an isolationist, feudal state to an industrialized world power.

Yamagata Aritomo

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Senior-ranking Japanese military commander, twice-elected Prime Minister of Japan, and a leading member of the genrō, an élite group of senior statesmen who dominated Japan after the Meiji Restoration.

Senior-ranking Japanese military commander, twice-elected Prime Minister of Japan, and a leading member of the genrō, an élite group of senior statesmen who dominated Japan after the Meiji Restoration.

Yamagata in his early years
Field Marshal Yamagata (c.1898).
Yamagata during his years as Prime Minister
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister of Japan. He was Yamagata's protégé and close ally.
Prince Yamagata Aritomo in his later years.
Yamagata Aritomo, unknown date

As the Imperial Japanese Army's inaugural Chief of Staff, he was the chief architect of the Empire of Japan's military and its reactionary ideology.

During the latter part of the Meiji Era, Yamagata vied against Marquess Itō Hirobumi for control over the nation's policies.

A conté of Takamori, by Edoardo Chiossone.

Saigō Takamori

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Japanese samurai and nobleman.

Japanese samurai and nobleman.

A conté of Takamori, by Edoardo Chiossone.
A portrait of Takamori by Ishikawa Shizumasa
The Seikanron debate. Saigō Takamori is sitting in the center. 1877 woodblock print.
Saigō preparing for war
Saigō Takamori (upper right) directing his troops at the Battle of Shiroyama
Saigō Takamori Gunmusho (軍務所) banknote, issued in 1877 to finance his war effort. Japan Currency Museum.
Monument of Satsu Do Toubaku no Mitsuyaku (Gion, Kyoto, Japan)
Saigō Takamori's statue near the southern entrance of Ueno Park.
The deathplace monument at Shiroyama-chō, Kagoshima
Aikana (1837-1902)
Saigō Itoko (1843-1922)
Saigō Kikujirō (1861-1928)
Saigō Toratarō (1866-1919)
Saigō Jūdō (1843-1902)
Portrait of Saigo Takamori, faithful depiction by the acquaintance Tokonami Masayoshi in 1887.
Woodblock print of Saigo Takamori by Hasegawa Sadanobu II which describes his career, November 1877

Living during the late Edo and early Meiji periods, he later led the Satsuma Rebellion against the Meiji government.

Saigō did insist, however, that Japan should go to war with Korea in the Seikanron debate of 1873 due to Korea's refusal to recognize the legitimacy of the Emperor Meiji as head of state of the Empire of Japan, and insulting treatment meted out to Japanese envoys attempting to establish trade and diplomatic relations.

Chōshū Domain

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Domain (han) of the Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan during the Edo period from 1600 to 1871.

Domain (han) of the Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan during the Edo period from 1600 to 1871.

Map of Japanese provinces (1868) with Nagato Province highlighted
The Chōshū Kiheitai fought against the shogunate in the Second Chōshū expedition and the Boshin War.
Mōri Takachika
Hagi Castle, the seat of the Mōri Lords of Chōshū

The Chōshū Domain was the most prominent anti-Tokugawa domain and formed the Satchō Alliance with the rival Satsuma Domain during the Meiji Restoration, becoming instrumental in the establishment of the Empire of Japan and the Meiji oligarchy.

Thanks to this alliance, Chōshū and Satsuma natives enjoyed political and societal prominence well into the Meiji and even Taishō eras.

The torii gateway to the Itsukushima Shrine in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, one of the most famous examples of torii in the country. Torii mark the entrance to Shinto shrines and are recognizable symbols of the religion.

Shinto

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Religion that originated in Japan.

Religion that originated in Japan.

The torii gateway to the Itsukushima Shrine in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, one of the most famous examples of torii in the country. Torii mark the entrance to Shinto shrines and are recognizable symbols of the religion.
A torii gateway to the Yobito Shrine (Yobito-jinja) in Abashiri City, Hokkaido
A torii gate at the Takachiho-gawara shrine near Kirishima, Kagoshima Prefecture, which is associated with the mythological tale of Ninigi-no-Mikoto's descent to earth.
An artistic depiction by Utagawa Kuniyoshi of the kami Inari appearing to a man
A 3000 year old sacred tree (shintai) of Takeo Shrine
Izanami-no-Mikoto and Izanagi-no-Mikoto, by Kobayashi Eitaku, late 19th century
Shinto purification rite after a ceremonial children's sumo tournament at the Kamigamo Jinja in Kyoto
The actions of priests at the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo have generated controversy across East Asia
The main gate to Fushimi Inari-taisha in Kyoto, one of the oldest shrines in Japan
Depictions of torii at the Fushimi Inari-taisha shrine in Kyoto
Yutateshinji ceremony performed by Shinto priests at the Miwa Shrine in Sakurai, Nara
Miko performing a Shinto ceremony near the Kamo River
A priest purifies the area in front of the residence of a kami.
A Toyota Previa being blessed at the Hokkaidō Shrine
Shinto rituals begin with a process of purification, often involving the washing of the hands and mouth at the temizu basin; this example is at Itsukushima Jinja.
A kamidana displaying a shimenawa and shide
A selection of wooden ema hanging up at a Shinto shrine
A frame at a shrine where omikuji are tied
A kagura traditional dance performed at the Yamanashi-oka shrine
Participants in a procession for Aoi Matsuri in Kyoto
Procession of the kami as part of the Fukagawa Matsuri festival in Tokyo
An itako at the autumn Inako Taisai festival at Mount Osore, Aomori Prefecture, Japan
A Yayoi period dotaku bell; these probably played a key role in kami rites at the time.
A page from the 14th-century Shinpukuji manuscript of the Kojiki, itself written in the 8th century
The Chōsen Jingū in Seoul, Korea, established during the Japanese occupation of the peninsula
The headquarters of the Association of Shinto Shrines in Shibuya, Tokyo.
A Shinto rite carried out at a jinja in San Marino, Southern Europe
A fox statue guarding the Inari shrine at Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū in Kamakura

During the Meiji era (1868 to 1912), Japan's nationalist leadership expelled Buddhist influence from kami worship and formed State Shinto, which some historians regard as the origin of Shinto as a distinct religion.

With the formation of the Japanese Empire in the early 20th century, Shinto was exported to other areas of East Asia.

First Sino-Japanese War, major battles and troop movements

First Sino-Japanese War

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First Sino-Japanese War, major battles and troop movements
Caricature about the dispute between China, Japan and Russia over Korea, published in the first edition of Tôbaé, 1887
Woodblock print depicting the flight of the Japanese legation in 1882
Kim Ok-gyun photographed in Nagasaki in 1882. His assassination in China would contribute to tensions leading to the First Sino-Japanese War.
Itō Sukeyuki, Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet
The French-built Matsushima, flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Sino-Japanese conflict
Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War
Empress Dowager Cixi built the Chinese navy in 1888.
, the flagship of the Beiyang Fleet
Depiction of the sinking of the Kow-shing and the rescue of some of its crew by the French gunboat Le Lion, from the French periodical Le Petit Journal (1894)
Korean soldiers and Chinese captives
Japanese soldiers of the First Sino-Japanese War, Japan, 1895
The Battle of the Yalu River
An illustration by Utagawa Kokunimasa of Japanese soldiers beheading 38 Chinese POWs as a warning to others
Revisionist depiction of Chinese delegation, led by Admiral Ding Ruchang and their foreign advisors, boarding the Japanese vessel to negotiate the surrender with Admiral Itō Sukeyuki after the Battle of Weihaiwei. In reality, Ding had committed suicide after his defeat, and never surrendered.
Japan–China peace treaty, 17 April 1895
Satirical drawing in the magazine Punch (29 September 1894), showing the victory of "small" Japan over "large" China
Convention of retrocession of the Liaodong Peninsula, 8 November 1895
Western Powers tried to divide their interests and influence in China in the aftermath of the First Sino-Japanese War.

The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a conflict between the Qing dynasty of China and the Empire of Japan primarily over influence in Joseon Korea.

They were impressed by the developments in Meiji Japan and were eager to emulate them.

Empire of Japan's 50 sen banknote, featuring Yasukuni Shrine

State Shinto

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Empire of Japan's 50 sen banknote, featuring Yasukuni Shrine
This 1878 engraving by Toyohara Chikanobu (1838–1912) visually presents the central tenet of State Shinto (1871–1946). This Shinto variant asserted and promoted belief in the divinity of the Emperor, which arose from a genealogical family tree extending back to the first emperor and to the most important deities of Japanese mythology.
Emperor Hirohito and General MacArthur, at their first meeting, at the U.S. Embassy, Tokyo, 27 September 1945
A torii gate at Yasukuni shrine
Portrait of Atsutane Hirata, hanging scroll
Yasukuni Shrine
The Empire of Japan at its peak territorial holdings, in 1942

State Shintō (国家神道 or 國家神道) was Imperial Japan's ideological use of the Japanese folk religion and traditions of Shinto.

The State Shinto ideology emerged at the start of the Meiji era, after government officials defined freedom of religion within the Meiji Constitution.