A report on Qing dynasty and Empire of Japan

The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
Italian 1682 map showing the "Kingdom of the Nüzhen" or the "Jin Tartars"
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Manchu cavalry charging Ming infantry battle of Sarhu in 1619
Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
Sura han ni chiha (Coins of Tiancong Khan) in Manchu alphabet
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
Dorgon (1612–1650)
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
Qing Empire in 1636
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662–1722)
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
Emperor with Manchu army in Khalkha 1688
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
Putuo Zongcheng Temple, Chengde, Qianlong reign; built on the model of Potala Palace, Lhasa
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
Campaign against the Dzungars in the Qing conquest of Xinjiang 1755–1758
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
Lord Macartney saluting the Qianlong Emperor
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
Commerce on the water, Prosperous Suzhou by Xu Yang, 1759
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
British Steamship destroying Chinese war junks (E. Duncan) (1843)
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
View of the Canton River, showing the Thirteen Factories in the background, 1850–1855
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
Government forces defeating Taiping armies
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
Yixin, Prince Gong
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
Empress Dowager Cixi (Oil painting by Hubert Vos c. 1905))
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
Britain, Germany, Russia, France, and Japan dividing China
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
Foreign armies in the Forbidden City 1900
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
Yuan Shikai
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
Qing China in 1911
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
Zaifeng, Prince Chun
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
A pitched battle between the imperial and revolutionary armies in 1911
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
A postage stamp from Yantai (Chefoo) in the Qing dynasty
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
A Qing dynasty mandarin
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
The emperor of China from The Universal Traveller
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
2000–cash Da-Qing Baochao banknote from 1859
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Qing China in 1832
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
The Qing dynasty in ca. 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
Brush container symbol of elegant gentry culture
National Diet Building, 1930
Chen Clan Ancestral Hall (陈家祠) built in 1894
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Patriarchal family
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
Placard (right to left) in Manchu, Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian Yonghe Lamasery, Beijing
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
Silver coin: 1 yuan/dollar Xuantong 3rd year - 1911 Chopmark
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Xián Fēng Tōng Bǎo (咸豐通寶) 1850–1861 Qing dynasty copper (brass) cash coin
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Puankhequa (1714–1788). Chinese merchant and member of a Cohong family.
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
Pine, Plum and Cranes, 1759, by Shen Quan (1682–1760).
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
A Daoguang period Peking glass vase. Colored in "Imperial Yellow", due to its association with the Qing.
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Jade book of the Qianlong period on display at the British Museum
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
Landscape by Wang Gai, 1694
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

Defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895 led to loss of suzerainty over Korea and cession of Taiwan to Japan.

- Qing dynasty

Korea had traditionally been a tributary state of China's Qing Empire, which exerted large influence over the conservative Korean officials who gathered around the royal family of the Joseon kingdom.

- Empire of Japan

19 related topics with Alpha

Overall

First Sino-Japanese War, major battles and troop movements

First Sino-Japanese War

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First Sino-Japanese War, major battles and troop movements
Caricature about the dispute between China, Japan and Russia over Korea, published in the first edition of Tôbaé, 1887
Woodblock print depicting the flight of the Japanese legation in 1882
Kim Ok-gyun photographed in Nagasaki in 1882. His assassination in China would contribute to tensions leading to the First Sino-Japanese War.
Itō Sukeyuki, Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet
The French-built Matsushima, flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Sino-Japanese conflict
Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War
Empress Dowager Cixi built the Chinese navy in 1888.
, the flagship of the Beiyang Fleet
Depiction of the sinking of the Kow-shing and the rescue of some of its crew by the French gunboat Le Lion, from the French periodical Le Petit Journal (1894)
Korean soldiers and Chinese captives
Japanese soldiers of the First Sino-Japanese War, Japan, 1895
The Battle of the Yalu River
An illustration by Utagawa Kokunimasa of Japanese soldiers beheading 38 Chinese POWs as a warning to others
Revisionist depiction of Chinese delegation, led by Admiral Ding Ruchang and their foreign advisors, boarding the Japanese vessel to negotiate the surrender with Admiral Itō Sukeyuki after the Battle of Weihaiwei. In reality, Ding had committed suicide after his defeat, and never surrendered.
Japan–China peace treaty, 17 April 1895
Satirical drawing in the magazine Punch (29 September 1894), showing the victory of "small" Japan over "large" China
Convention of retrocession of the Liaodong Peninsula, 8 November 1895
Western Powers tried to divide their interests and influence in China in the aftermath of the First Sino-Japanese War.

The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a conflict between the Qing dynasty of China and the Empire of Japan primarily over influence in Joseon Korea.

Aguda, Emperor Taizu of Jurchen Jin

Manchu people

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Officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

Officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

Aguda, Emperor Taizu of Jurchen Jin
An imperial portrait of Nurgaci
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
Prince Zaitao dresses in modern reformed uniform of late Qing dynasty
Noblewoman Wanyan Litongji, 1900s
"Banjin Inenggi" and Manchu linguistic activity by the government and students in Changchun, 2011
the cover of the Eight Manchu Banners' Surname-Clans' Book
A musketeer wearing a queue and formal hat
Han and Manchu clothing coexisted during Qing dynasty
Han Chinese clothing in early Qing
Han Chinese general Zhang Zhiyuan wearing Qing military outfit.
Painting of the Qianlong Emperor hunting
Manchu wrestlers competed in front of the Qianlong Emperor
The performance of Manchu palace skaters on holiday
Octagonal drum performance on stage
Akšan, Manchu singer and ulabun artist
Manchu autonomous area in Liaoning.{{#tag:ref|Autonomous counties are shown in bright green. Counties with autonomous townships are in dark green, with the number of Manchu townshipin each county shown in red (or yellow). So are another 2 pictures|group=note}}
Manchu autonomous area in Jilin.
Manchu autonomous area in Hebei.
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party

The Later Jin (1616–1636) and Qing (1636–1912) dynasties of China were established and ruled by the Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in northern China.

As a follow-up to the Mukden Incident, Manchukuo, a puppet state in Manchuria, was created by the Empire of Japan which was nominally ruled by the deposed Last Emperor, Puyi, in 1932.

Japanese version of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, April 17, 1895.

Treaty of Shimonoseki

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Japanese version of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, April 17, 1895.
Independence Gate (front), Seoul, South Korea A symbol of the end of Korea's tributary relationship with the Qing Empire
The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed
Shunpanrō interior
Signing of Treaty of Shimonoseki
Convention of retrocession of the Liaotung peninsula, 8 November 1895
The Shunpanrō in 2004

The Treaty of Shimonoseki (下関条約), also known as Treaty of Maguan in China and Treaty of Bakan (馬關條約) in the period before and during WWII in Japan, was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel (春帆樓), Shimonoseki, Japan on April 17, 1895, between the Empire of Japan and Qing China, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.

Republic of China (1912–1949)

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Commonly recognised as the official designation of China from 1912 to 1949, when it was a country in East Asia based in Mainland China, prior to the relocation of its central government to Taiwan as a result of the Chinese Civil War.

Commonly recognised as the official designation of China from 1912 to 1949, when it was a country in East Asia based in Mainland China, prior to the relocation of its central government to Taiwan as a result of the Chinese Civil War.

Land controlled by the Republic of China (1946) shown in dark green; land claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of the Republic of China.
Yuan Shikai (left) and Sun Yat-sen (right) with flags representing the early republic
Major Chinese warlord coalitions during the "Nanjing Decade".
Cooperation with Germany
China had been at war with Japan since 1931.
Chinese Nationalist Army soldiers during the 1938 Yellow River flood
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China during 1930s
Beiyang Army troops on parade
The NRA during World War II
Boat traffic and development along Suzhou Creek, Shanghai, 1920
A 10 Custom Gold Units bill, 1930

The Republic was declared on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China.

China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

Map with historic extent of Manchuria. Inner Manchuria lies in Northeast China, coloured in red. Outer Manchuria to the north and the part today in Inner Mongolia to the west are in lighter red.

Manchuria

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Deprecated in the People's Republic China after 1949 due to its association with Manchurian nationalism and the breakaway of Manchukuo.

Deprecated in the People's Republic China after 1949 due to its association with Manchurian nationalism and the breakaway of Manchukuo.

Map with historic extent of Manchuria. Inner Manchuria lies in Northeast China, coloured in red. Outer Manchuria to the north and the part today in Inner Mongolia to the west are in lighter red.
One of the earliest European maps using the term "Manchuria" (Mandchouria) (John Tallis, 1851). Previously, the term "Chinese Tartary" had been commonly applied in the West to Manchuria and Mongolia
1900s map of Manchuria, in pink
Climate map of Manchuria or Northeast China.
Hailang River near Hailin City in Heilongjiang
A 12th-century Jurchen stone tortoise in today's Ussuriysk
The Three Kingdoms of Korea occupied roughly half of Manchuria, 5th century AD
The Mongol Yuan province of Liaoyang included northern Korea
Manchuria is the homeland of the Jurchens who became the Manchus.
A Jurchen man hunting from his horse, from a 15th-century ink-and-color painting on silk
The Manchu-led Qing dynasty circa 1820. Later Jin area in purple line
Map showing the original border (in pink) between Manchuria and Russia according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk 1689, and subsequent losses of territory to Russia in the treaties of Aigun 1858 (beige) and Peking 1860 (red)
Harbin's Kitayskaya Street (Russian for "Chinese Street"), now Zhongyang Street (Chinese for "Central Street"), before 1945
1940 Manchukuo visa issued at Hamburg
Map of Manchukuo (1933–1945)
Map of the three provinces of Northeast China (1911) {{sfnp|EB|1911}}
Map of Manchukuo and its rail network, c.{{nbsp}}1945
Map with the historic extent of Manchuria. Inner Manchuria lies in Northeast China, colored in red. Outer Manchuria to the north and the part today in Inner Mongolia to the west are in lighter red.

Northeast China is predominantly Han Chinese due to internal Chinese migrations and Sinicization of the Manchus especially during the Qing Dynasty.

Manchukuo (1932–1945), a puppet state of Imperial Japan. Its occupied territories included the entire Northeast China, the northern fringes of present-day Hebei Province, and the eastern part of Inner Mongolia.

Joseon

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The last dynastic kingdom of Korea, lasting just over 500 years.

The last dynastic kingdom of Korea, lasting just over 500 years.

Territory of Joseon after King Sejong's conquest of Jurchen in 1433
King Taejo's portrait
Territory of Joseon after King Sejong's conquest of Jurchen in 1433
The throne at Gyeongbok Palace
Portrait of Ha Yeon, who served as Yeonguijeong during the King Sejong's reign
A page from the Hunmin Jeongeum Eonhae, a partial translation of Hunminjeongeum, the original promulgation of the Korean alphabet
Portrait of the neo-Confucian scholar, Jo Gwang-jo (1482–1519)
Jeong Cheol (1536–1593), head of the Western faction
The Turtle ship (replica)
The Turtle Ship interior
A Korean painting depicting two Jurchen warriors and their horses
Portrait of Kim Yuk 김육 (1570–1658), an early Silhak philosopher of the Joseon period
Hwaseong Fortress in Suwon
Sinjeong, Queen Regent of Joseon. She served as nominal regent of Joseon, who selected Gojong to place upon the throne.
Heungseon Daewongun
Emperor Gojong
The Phoenix Throne of the king of Joseon in Gyeongbok Palace
Portrait of Chief State Councillor Chae Je-gong (1720–1799)
Portrait of the Inspector General Yun Bonggu (1681–1767)
Portrait of Kim Hu (1751–1805), a military officer of the Joseon Dynasty
Woman's mourning clothes in Joseon
A portrait of a civil bureaucrat in the Joseon period
A Joseon painting which represents the Chungin (literally "middle people"), equivalent to the petite bourgeoisie
Men's (right) and Women's (left) clothes (Hanbok) of Joseon period. A portrait painted by Shin Yun-bok (1758–?).
Male dress of a Seonbi. A portrait painted by Yi Jae-gwan (1783–1837).
Royal ceremony with Joseon era clothing
Early Joseon landscape painting by Seo Munbo in the late 15th century
15th century. Joseon period, Korea. Blue and white porcelain jar with plum and bamboo design.
Landscape of Mt. Geumgang by Kim Hong-do (1745–1806) in 1788
Korean celestial globe first made by the scientist Jang Yeong-sil during the reign of King Sejong
Surviving portion of the Water Clock (Jagyeongnu)
Japanese illustration of King Gojong and Queen Min receiving Inoue Kaoru
This compilation photo, taken about 1915, shows the following royal family members, from left: Prince Imperial Ui, the 6th son of Gojong; Emperor Sunjong, the 2nd son and the last monarch of Korea; Prince Imperial Yeong, the 7th son; Gojong, the former King; Empress Yun, wife of Sunjong; Lady Kim, wife of Prince Imperial Ui; and Yi Geon, the eldest son of Prince Ui. The seated child in the front row is Princess Deokhye, Gojong's last child. (This is a compilation of individual photographs since the Japanese did not allow them to be in the same room at the same time, and some were forced to leave Korea).
Seal used from 1392 to 1401
Seal used from 1401 to 1637<ref>Veritable Records of Taejong, vol. 1, year of 1401, 6th month, 12nd day</ref>
Seal used between 1637<ref>Veritable Records of Injoo, vol. 35, year of 1637, 11th month, 20nd day.</ref> and 1653<ref>{{cite book |author= 김지남 |date= 1888 |title= Record of Joseon Diplomacy |volume= 3 |chapter=9|url= https://kyudb.snu.ac.kr/book/view.do?book_cd=GK00882_00 |page=126~127 }}</ref>
Seal used between 1653 and 1776<ref>Veritable Records of Jeongjo, vol. 2, year of 1776, 8th month, 18nd day</ref>
Seal used between 1776 and 1876
The seal was produced on December 15, 1876, for use in Japanese-related state documents.
"Daegunjubo" designed to replace the former sergeant "Joseongukwangjiin", used as the seal of the king for documents such as appointment documents for high-ranking government officials and ordinances proclaimed in Korea, between 1882 and 1897<ref name="great">Journal of the Royal Secretariat, vol. 2902, year of 1882, 7th month, 1nd day</ref>
"DaejoseonDaegunjubo" were used as the 'seal of state' for credentials in diplomatic relations with other countries, between 1882{{clarification needed|date=April 2022}}

Several decades later, Joseon was invaded by the Later Jin dynasty and the Qing dynasty in 1627 and 1636–1637 respectively, leading to an increasingly harsh isolationist policy, for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom" in Western literature.

In 1910 the Japanese Empire finally annexed Korea.

Manchukuo

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Manchukuo (burgundy) within the Empire of Japan (pink) at its furthest extent
Location of Manchukuo (red) within Imperial Japan's sphere of influence (1939)
Kangde
Manchukuo (burgundy) within the Empire of Japan (pink) at its furthest extent
Members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere; territory controlled at maximum height. Japan and its allies in dark red; occupied territories/client states in lighter red. Korea and Taiwan were at that time considered integral parts of Japan and governed directly by the Japanese government, unlike client states such as Manchukuo that functioned under puppet governments.
The Japan–Manchukuo Protocol, 15 September 1932
The throne of the emperor of Manchukuo, c. 1937
Foreign recognition of Manchukuo represented by states in colors other than gray
Puyi as Emperor Kangde of Manchukuo
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Propaganda poster promoting harmony between Japanese, Chinese, and Manchu. The caption says (Right to left): "With the cooperation of Japan, China, and Manchukuo, the world can be in peace."
Hideki Tōjō (right) and Nobusuke Kishi, the key architect of Manchukuo (1935–39), also known as the "Shōwa (Emperor) era monster/devil"
Map of Japanese Hokushin-ron plans for a potential attack on the Soviet Union. Dates indicate the year that Japan gained control of the territory.
Map of Manchukuo
Administrative divisions of Manchukuo in 1938
A Manchukuo propaganda poster promoting displaying European and East Asian ethnic groups
The Empress of Manchukuo taking part in a procession during a visit by Japanese officials (1934)
Propaganda poster of the Manchukuo Government for the Western audience, featuring a couple of Japanese agrarian immigrants
Showa Steel Works in the early 1940s
Cavalry of the Manchukuo Imperial Army
A Type 41 75 mm mountain gun during an Imperial Army exercise
Manchukuo Imperial Air Force pilots, 1942, with a Nakajima Ki-27 behind
Poppy harvest in Manchukuo

Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Manchuria from 1932 until 1945.

The area was the homeland of the Manchus, including the emperors of the Qing dynasty.

Itō Hirobumi in 1909

Itō Hirobumi

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Japanese politician and statesman who served as the first Prime Minister of Japan.

Japanese politician and statesman who served as the first Prime Minister of Japan.

Itō Hirobumi in 1909
Itō Hirobumi in 1909
Itō Hirobumi as a samurai in his youth.
Photo of Itō (fourth from right--standing) alongside other members of the Iwakura mission
Itō Hirobumi as prime minister (c.1880s.)
Itō in the later years of his political career.
Prince Itō and the Crown Prince of Korea Yi Un
A Series C 1,000 yen note of Japan, with a portrait of Itō Hirobumi.

A London-educated samurai of the Chōshū Domain and a central figure in the Meiji Restoration, Itō Hirobumi chaired the bureau which drafted the Constitution for the newly formed Empire of Japan.

In Asia, he oversaw the First Sino-Japanese War and negotiated the surrender of China's ruling Qing dynasty on terms aggressively favourable to Japan, including the annexation of Taiwan and the release of Korea from the Chinese Imperial tribute system.

Taiwan

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Taiwan has been settled for at least 25,000 years.

Taiwan has been settled for at least 25,000 years.

A young Tsou man
Fort Zeelandia, the Governor's residence in Dutch Formosa
Hunting deer, painted in 1746
Japanese colonial soldiers march Taiwanese captured after the Tapani Incident in 1915 from the Tainan jail to court.
General Chen Yi (right) accepting the receipt of General Order No. 1 from Rikichi Andō (left), the last Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan, in Taipei City Hall
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang from 1925 until his death in 1975
With Chiang Kai-shek, US president Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to crowds during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.
In 1988, Lee Teng-hui became the first president of the Republic of China born in Taiwan and was the first to be directly elected in 1996.
Student protest in Taipei against a controversial trade agreement with China in March 2014
A satellite image of Taiwan, showing it is mostly mountainous in the east, with gently sloping plains in the west. The Penghu Islands are west of the main island.
Köppen climate classification of Taiwan
Dabajian Mountain
2015 Ma–Xi meeting
ROC embassy in Eswatini
The flag used by Taiwan at the Olympic Games, where it competes as "Chinese Taipei" (中華台北)
Taiwan's popularly elected president resides in the Presidential Office Building, Taipei, originally built in the Japanese era for colonial governors
Tsai Ing-wen, President of the Republic of China
Su Tseng-chang, Premier of the Republic of China
Taiwanese-born Tangwai ("independent") politician Wu San-lien (second left) celebrates with supporters his landslide victory of 65.5 per cent in Taipei's first mayoral election in January 1951.
Results from an identity survey conducted each year from 1992 to 2020 by the Election Study Center, National Chengchi University. Responses are Taiwanese (green), Chinese (red) or Both Taiwanese and Chinese (hatched). No response is shown as grey.
Republic of China Army’s Thunderbolt-2000, a multiple rocket launcher
The C-130H in Songshan AFB
Taipei 101 held the world record for the highest skyscraper from 2004 to 2010.
Neihu Technology Park in Taipei
Rice paddy fields in Yilan County
China Airlines aircraft line-up at Taoyuan International Airport
Children at a Taiwanese school
Population density map of Taiwan (residents per square kilometre)
Original geographic distributions of Taiwanese indigenous peoples
Most commonly used home language in each area, darker in proportion to the lead over the next most common
National Taiwan University Hospital
Apo Hsu and the NTNU Symphony Orchestra onstage in the National Concert Hall
Taiwanese writer, literary critic and politician Wang Tuoh
Yani Tseng with the 2011 Women's British Open trophy
Tai Tzu-ying, the current world No.1 in BWF at the 2018 Chinese Taipei Open
St. John's Catholic Church in Banqiao District, New Taipei
Countries maintaining relations with the ROCdiplomatic relations and embassy in Taipei
unofficial relations (see text)
The Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL) is the top-tier professional baseball league in Taiwan

The island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, and ceded to the Empire of Japan in 1895.

Puyi

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Painting portrait of Puyi, 1908
Silver coin: 1 yuan/dollar Xuantong 3rd year - 1911 Chopmark
Titular emperor Puyi in the Forbidden City
Gobulo Wanrong, Puyi's wife and Empress of China
Secondary consort Wenxiu
A photo taken of Puyi's bedroom in the Forbidden City shortly after being expelled
Puyi in the Garden of Serenity (靜園), as it looked in the late 1920s and early 1930s
Puyi, pictured with Wanrong
Puyi wearing the Mǎnzhōuguó uniform.
Puyi and Wanrong leaving their hotel on March 8 of 1932 before travelling to the official Manchukuo founding ceremony in Changchun
Manchukuo Enthronement Commemorative Medal
Puyi (right) as Emperor of Manchukuo. On the left is Chū Kudō.
Tan Yuling, Puyi's concubine
The site of Puyi's abdication in a small mining office complex in Dalizi
Puyi (right) and a Soviet military officer
Puyi's letters to Joseph Stalin
Fushun War Criminals Prison
Puyi in 1961, flanked by Xiong Bingkun, a commander in the Wuchang Uprising, and Lu Zhonglin, who took part in Puyi's expulsion from the Forbidden City in 1924.
In the spring of 1967, Pujie and Saga Hiro visited Puyi, who was by then seriously ill.
Puyi's tutor, Sir Reginald Johnston
Emperor Puyi shakes hands with Emperor Hirohito at Tokyo Station on 26 June 1940

Aisin-Gioro Puyi (February 7, 1906 – October 17, 1967), courtesy name Yaozhi (曜之), was the last emperor of China as the eleventh and final Qing dynasty monarch.

He was later installed as the Emperor Kangde (康德) of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo during World War II.