Clockwise from top: under fire at Port Arthur, Russian cavalry at Mukden,  and gunboat  at Chemulpo Bay, Japanese dead at Port Arthur, Japanese infantry crossing the Yalu River
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
 style = padding-center: 0.6em; text-align: center;
An anti-Russian satirical map produced by a Japanese student at Keio University during the Russo-Japanese War. It follows the design used for a similar map first published in 1877.
The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
Chinese generals in Pyongyang surrender to the Japanese, October 1894.
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
 style = padding-center: 0.6em; text-align: center;
Troops of the Eight-Nation Alliance in 1900. Left to right: Britain, United States, Australia, India, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Japan.
Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
Kurino Shin'ichirō
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
Japanese infantry during the occupation of Seoul, Korea, in 1904
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
Battlefields in the Russo-Japanese War
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
Bombardment during the Siege of Port Arthur
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
Japanese assault on the entrenched Russian forces, 1904
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
Route of Baltic Fleet, to and back
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
Retreat of Russian soldiers after the Battle of Mukden
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
An illustration of a Japanese assault during the Battle of Mukden
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
, the flagship of Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō at the Battle of Tsushima
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
Negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905). From left to right: the Russians at far side of table are Korostovetz, Nabokov, Witte, Rosen, Plancon; and the Japanese at near side of table are Adachi, Ochiai, Komura, Takahira, Satō. The large conference table is today preserved at the Museum Meiji-mura in Inuyama, Aichi Prefecture, Japan.
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Japan-Russia Treaty of Peace, 5 September 1905
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
Japanese propaganda woodcut print showing Tsar Nicholas II waking from a nightmare of the battered and wounded Russian forces returning from battle. Artist Kobayashi Kiyochika, 1904 or 1905.
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
Punch cartoon, 1905; A cartoon in the British press of the times illustrating the Russian Empire's loss of prestige after the nation's defeat. The hour-glass represents Russia's prestige running out.
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
After the Battle of Liaoyang: Transport of wounded Russians by the Red Cross (Angelo Agostini)
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
Postcard of political satire during the Russo-Japanese War
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
Japanese Empire's territorial expansion
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
Japanese general, Kuroki, and his staff, including foreign officers and war correspondents after the Battle of Shaho (1904)
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
Getsuzō's woodblock print of "The Battle of Liaoyang", 1904
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
Painting of Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō on the bridge of the, before the Battle of Tsushima in 1905
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
National Diet Building, 1930
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

The Russo-Japanese War (日露戦争; Ру́сско-япóнская войнá) was fought between the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire during 1904 and 1905 over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and the Korean Empire.

- Russo-Japanese War

Under the slogans of fukoku kyōhei (富国強兵) and shokusan kōgyō, (殖産興業) Japan underwent a period of industrialization and militarization, the Meiji Restoration being the fastest modernisation of any country to date, all of these aspects contributed to Japan's emergence as a great power and the establishment of a colonial empire following the First Sino-Japanese War, the Boxer Rebellion, the Russo-Japanese War, and World War I.

- Empire of Japan

23 related topics with Alpha

Overall

First Sino-Japanese War, major battles and troop movements

First Sino-Japanese War

10 links

First Sino-Japanese War, major battles and troop movements
Caricature about the dispute between China, Japan and Russia over Korea, published in the first edition of Tôbaé, 1887
Woodblock print depicting the flight of the Japanese legation in 1882
Kim Ok-gyun photographed in Nagasaki in 1882. His assassination in China would contribute to tensions leading to the First Sino-Japanese War.
Itō Sukeyuki, Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet
The French-built Matsushima, flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Sino-Japanese conflict
Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War
Empress Dowager Cixi built the Chinese navy in 1888.
, the flagship of the Beiyang Fleet
Depiction of the sinking of the Kow-shing and the rescue of some of its crew by the French gunboat Le Lion, from the French periodical Le Petit Journal (1894)
Korean soldiers and Chinese captives
Japanese soldiers of the First Sino-Japanese War, Japan, 1895
The Battle of the Yalu River
An illustration by Utagawa Kokunimasa of Japanese soldiers beheading 38 Chinese POWs as a warning to others
Revisionist depiction of Chinese delegation, led by Admiral Ding Ruchang and their foreign advisors, boarding the Japanese vessel to negotiate the surrender with Admiral Itō Sukeyuki after the Battle of Weihaiwei. In reality, Ding had committed suicide after his defeat, and never surrendered.
Japan–China peace treaty, 17 April 1895
Satirical drawing in the magazine Punch (29 September 1894), showing the victory of "small" Japan over "large" China
Convention of retrocession of the Liaodong Peninsula, 8 November 1895
Western Powers tried to divide their interests and influence in China in the aftermath of the First Sino-Japanese War.

The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a conflict between the Qing dynasty of China and the Empire of Japan primarily over influence in Joseon Korea.

That would be the deciding factor and catalyst leading to the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05.

Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy

Imperial Japanese Navy

6 links

Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The Battle of Dan-no-ura in 1185
A 16th-century Japanese "Atakebune" coastal naval war vessel, bearing the symbol of the Tokugawa Clan.
No. 6 Odaiba battery, one of the original Edo-era battery islands. These batteries are defensive structures built to withstand naval intrusions.
The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, wooden paddle steamer warship and ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The ironclad Fusō, between 1878 and 1891
The ironclad corvette
Marshal-Admiral Marquis Saigo Tsugumichi commanded Japanese expeditionary forces as a lieutenant-general in the Taiwan expedition.
The British-built steam ironclad warship was the flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy until 1881.
The French-built protected cruiser Matsushima, the flagship of the IJN at the Battle of the Yalu River (1894)
The protected cruiser Hashidate, built domestically at the arsenal of Yokosuka
The torpedo boat Hayabusa
The Chinese Beiyang Fleet ironclad battleship Zhenyuan captured by IJN in 1895.
The armored cruiser Azuma
The pre-dreadnought battleship Mikasa, among the most powerful battleships of her time, in 1905, was one of the six battleships ordered as part of the program.
Marshal-Admiral Viscount Inoue Yoshika, 1900
The pre-dreadnought battleship Katori
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after capitulation in 1905. From left wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruiser Pallada
Holland 1-class submarine, the first Japanese navy submarine, purchased during the Russo Japanese War
The semi-dreadnought battleship Satsuma, the first ship in the world to be designed and laid down as an "all-big-gun" battleship
The dreadnought battleship Settsu
The dreadnought battleship Kawachi
The seaplane carrier conducted the world's first sea-launched air raids in September 1914.
Yokosuka Naval Arsenal immediately after the Great Kantō earthquake of 1923
Photograph shows the super-dreadnought battleship Nagato, between ca. 1920 and ca. 1925
The super-dreadnought battleship Mutsu
The planned Tosa-class battleship Tosa being prepared for scuttling at Kure on 31 January 1925.
Captain Sempill showing a Sparrowhawk fighter to Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō, 1921
, the world's first purpose built aircraft carrier, completed in 1922
IJN super-dreadnought battleships Yamashiro, Fusō, and battlecruiser Haruna, Tokyo Bay, 1930s
Type 91 Aerial Torpedo on IJN aircraft carrier Akagi flight deck.
IJN Yamato-class Battleships Yamato and Musashi moored in Truk Lagoon, in 1943
IJN Ha-101 class submarines Ha-105, Ha-106 and Ha-109 designed as transport submarines to resupply isolated island garrisons, 1945.
Aft view of the flight deck of the IJN aircraft carrier from the island, 19 October 1945
IJN Aircraft carrier Ibuki under dismantling operation at Sasebo Naval Arsenal. October 1946
Replica of the Japanese-built 1613 galleon San Juan Bautista, in Ishinomaki
A Chinese illustration of a Red seal ship.
The sailing frigate Shōhei Maru (1854) was built from Dutch technical drawings.
The screw-driven steam corvette {{Ship|Japanese warship|Kanrin Maru||2}}, Japan's first screw-driven steam warship, 1857
The gunboat Chiyoda, was Japan's first domestically built steam warship. It was completed in May 1866.<ref>Jentschura p. 113</ref>
The French-built ironclad warship Kōtetsu (ex-CSS Stonewall), Japan's first modern ironclad, 1869
The warship of Yamada Nagamasa (1590–1630), a merchant and soldier who traveled to Ayutthaya (Thailand)

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 'Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire', or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, 'Japanese Navy') was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II.

The navy had several successes, sometimes against much more powerful enemies such as in the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, before being largely destroyed in World War II.

Itō Hirobumi in 1909

Itō Hirobumi

7 links

Japanese politician and statesman who served as the first Prime Minister of Japan.

Japanese politician and statesman who served as the first Prime Minister of Japan.

Itō Hirobumi in 1909
Itō Hirobumi in 1909
Itō Hirobumi as a samurai in his youth.
Photo of Itō (fourth from right--standing) alongside other members of the Iwakura mission
Itō Hirobumi as prime minister (c.1880s.)
Itō in the later years of his political career.
Prince Itō and the Crown Prince of Korea Yi Un
A Series C 1,000 yen note of Japan, with a portrait of Itō Hirobumi.

A London-educated samurai of the Chōshū Domain and a central figure in the Meiji Restoration, Itō Hirobumi chaired the bureau which drafted the Constitution for the newly formed Empire of Japan.

Consequently, Japan's incumbent Prime Minister, Katsura Tarō, elected to abandon the pursuit of Man-Kan kōkan, which resulted in an escalation of tensions culminating in the Russo-Japanese War.

Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 30 January 1902. Diplomatic Record Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan).

Anglo-Japanese Alliance

5 links

Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 30 January 1902. Diplomatic Record Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan).
Tadasu Hayashi, Japanese signatory of the alliance
Punch cartoon (1905) accompanied by a quote from Rudyard Kipling that appeared in the British press after the treaty was renewed in 1905 illustrates the positive light that the alliance was seen in by the British public.
Commemorative postcard 1905
Toyama Mitsuru honours Rash Behari Bose
The Meiji Emperor receiving the Order of the Garter in 1906, as a consequence of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
Japanese armoured cruiser Nisshin of the Imperial Japanese Navy, in the Mediterranean (Malta, 1919).
The Peacock Skirt, by Aubrey Beardsley, shows significant Japanese influence
Rear Admiral Jisaku Uozumi signs the surrender of Penang aboard the battleship on 2 September 1945. He fainted shortly afterward and was rushed to hospital. Note the Distinguished Service Cross ribbon on Uozumi's uniform, which he had earned from the British during the alliance.

The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance (日英同盟) was an alliance between Britain and Japan, signed in January 1902.

France was concerned about war with Britain and, in cooperation with Britain, abandoned its ally, Russia, to avoid the Russo-Japanese War of 1904.

(clockwise from top left)Imperial Japanese Navy landing force in military gas masks in the Battle of Shanghai

Japanese Type 92 heavy machine gunners during Operation Ichi-Go

Victims of the Nanjing Massacre on the shore of the Qinhuai River

Chinese machine gun nest in the Battle of Wuhan

Japanese aircraft during the bombing of Chongqing

Chinese Expeditionary Force marching in India

Second Sino-Japanese War

4 links

(clockwise from top left)Imperial Japanese Navy landing force in military gas masks in the Battle of Shanghai

Japanese Type 92 heavy machine gunners during Operation Ichi-Go

Victims of the Nanjing Massacre on the shore of the Qinhuai River

Chinese machine gun nest in the Battle of Wuhan

Japanese aircraft during the bombing of Chongqing

Chinese Expeditionary Force marching in India
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theatre from 1942 to 1945
Japanese troops entering Shenyang during the Mukden Incident
Japanese Empire's territorial expansion
A baby sits in the remains of a Shanghai train station on 'Bloody Saturday', 1937
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek announced the Kuomintang policy of resistance against Japan at Lushan on 10 July 1937, three days after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
Japanese landing near Shanghai, November 1937
Japanese troops in the ruins of Shanghai
Soviet embassy in Nanjing is being burned down by arson on 1 January 1938.
A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer with a shin gunto
National Revolutionary Army soldiers during the 1938 Yellow River flood
Map showing the extent of Japanese occupation in 1941 (in red)
Theaters (military operational regions) of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army from late 1938 to early 1940
Wang Jingwei and officers of the Collaborationist Chinese Army
Chinese soldiers in house-to-house fighting in the Battle of Taierzhuang, March–April 1938
National Revolutionary Army soldiers march to the front in 1939.
Eighth Route Army Commander Zhu De with a KMT "Blue Sky, White Sun" emblem cap
115th Division of the Eighth Route Army Lieutenant General (NRA rank) Lin Biao in NRA uniform
War declaration against Japan by the Chongqing Nationalist Government on 9 December 1941
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Madame Chiang with Lieutenant General Joseph Stilwell in 1942, Burma
A United States poster from the United China Relief organization advocating aid to China.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in 1943 during World War II.
H. H. Kung and Adolf Hitler in Berlin
I-16 with Chinese insignia. The I-16 was the main fighter plane used by the Chinese Air Force and Soviet volunteers.
Flying Tigers Commander Claire Lee Chennault
A "blood chit" issued to American Volunteer Group pilots requesting all Chinese to offer rescue and protection
Free Thai, American and Chinese military officers in China during the war
The India–China airlift delivered approximately 650,000 tons of materiel to China at a cost of 1,659 men and 594 aircraft.
French colonial troops retreating to the Chinese border after the Japanese coup d'état in March 1945
Chinese Muslim cavalry
Chinese Muslim soldiers
WWII victory parade at Chongqing on 3 September 1945
Japanese troops surrendering to the Chinese
The Chinese return to Liuzhou in July 1945.
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
China War of Resistance Against Japan Memorial Museum on the site where the Marco Polo Bridge Incident took place
The Taiwan Strait and the island of Taiwan
Casualties of a mass panic during a June 1941 Japanese bombing of Chongqing. More than 5,000 civilians died during the first two days of air raids in 1939.
Japanese war crime against a Chinese POW
Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces with gas masks and rubber gloves during a chemical attack near Chapei in the Battle of Shanghai
Chinese suicide bomber putting on an explosive vest made out of Model 24 hand grenades to use in an attack on Japanese tanks at the Battle of Taierzhuang

The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan.

Japan charged that its rights in Manchuria, which had been established as a result of its victory at the end of the Russo-Japanese War, had been systematically violated and there were "more than 120 cases of infringement of rights and interests, interference with business, boycott of Japanese goods, unreasonable taxation, detention of individuals, confiscation of properties, eviction, demand for cessation of business, assault and battery, and the oppression of Korean residents".

Convention of retrocession of the Liaodong Peninsula, 8 November 1895.

Triple Intervention

4 links

Convention of retrocession of the Liaodong Peninsula, 8 November 1895.

The Tripartite Intervention or Triple Intervention (三国干渉) was a diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France on 23 April 1895 over the harsh terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki imposed by Japan on the Qing dynasty of China that ended the First Sino-Japanese War.

The Japanese reaction against the Triple Intervention was one of the causes of the subsequent Russo-Japanese War.

The Pacific War Council as photographed on 12 October 1942. Pictured are representatives from the United States (seated), Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, China, the Netherlands, and the Philippine Commonwealth

Pacific War

4 links

The theater of World War II that was fought in Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and Oceania.

The theater of World War II that was fought in Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and Oceania.

The Pacific War Council as photographed on 12 October 1942. Pictured are representatives from the United States (seated), Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, China, the Netherlands, and the Philippine Commonwealth
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theater from 1942 to 1945
A mass grave of Chinese prisoners killed by the Imperial Japanese Army in the 1937 Nanjing Massacre
Chinese casualties of a mass panic during a June 1941 Japanese aerial bombing of Chongqing
USS Arizona (BB-39) burned for two days after being hit by a Japanese bomb in the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Japanese aerial photo of battleship HMS Prince of Wales (top) and battlecruiser HMS Repulse under attack.
British forces surrender Singapore to the Japanese, February 1942
The Bombing of Darwin, Australia, 19 February 1942
Surrender of US forces at Corregidor, Philippines, May 1942
Dutch and Australian PoWs at Tarsau, in Thailand in 1943. 22,000 Australians were captured by the Japanese; 8,000 died as prisoners of war.
US General Douglas MacArthur, Commander of Allied forces in the South-West Pacific Area, with Australian Prime Minister John Curtin
Japanese advance until mid-1942
A B-25 bomber takes off from USS Hornet (CV-8) as part of the Doolittle Raid.
The aircraft carrier USS Lexington (CV-2) explodes on 8 May 1942, several hours after being damaged by a Japanese carrier air attack.
under attack by B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers
US Marines rest in the field during the Guadalcanal campaign in November 1942.
Chinese troops during the Battle of Changde in November 1943
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and General Joseph Stilwell, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theatre from 1942 to 1945
Allied attack routes against the Empire of Japan
American forces landing at Rendova Island, June, 1943
The Allied leaders of the Asian and Pacific Theaters: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill meeting at the Cairo Conference in 1943
The torpedoed, as seen through the periscope of an American submarine, USS Nautilus (SS-168), in June 1942
The, the largest non-nuclear submarines ever constructed
Chinese forces on M3A3 Stuart tanks on the Ledo Road
British Indian troops during the Battle of Imphal
Marines fire captured mountain gun during the attack on Garapan, Saipan, 21 June 1944.
US Marines during mopping up operations on Peleliu, September 1944
The Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku and two destroyers under attack in the Battle of the Philippine Sea
The four engagements in the Battle of Leyte Gulf
General Douglas MacArthur wading ashore at Leyte
US troops approaching Japanese positions near Baguio, Luzon, 23 March 1945
Royal Marines landing at Ramree
British soldiers patrolling the ruins of a Burmese town during the advance on Mandalay, January 1945
Iwo Jima location map
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima, an iconic photograph taken by Joe Rosenthal on February 23, 1945, depicts six United States Marines raising a US flag atop Mount Suribachi.
USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) burns after being hit by two kamikazes. At Okinawa, the kamikazes caused 4,900 American deaths.
US Marines pass a dead Japanese soldier in a destroyed village on Okinawa, April 1945
US LVTs land Australian soldiers at Balikpapan on 7 July 1945.
American B-29 Superfortresses drop incendiary bombs over the port city of Kobe, June 1945
The mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 60,000 feet (18 km) into the air on the morning of 9 August 1945
Pacific Fleet marines of the Soviet Navy hoist the Soviet naval ensign in Port Arthur, on 1 October 1945.
Douglas MacArthur signs the formal Japanese Instrument of Surrender on USS Missouri (BB-63), 2 September 1945.
American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa, November 1943
Indian prisoners of war shot and bayoneted by Japanese soldiers
IJA soldiers after a suicide charge on US Marine positions in Guadalcanal
Charred remains of civilians killed in the 10 March firebombing of Tokyo, codenamed Operation Meetinghouse, which killed an estimated 100,000 people, March 1945
Australian POW Sergeant Leonard G. Siffleet of M Special Unit being beheaded by a Japanese officer, Yasuno Chikao, on 24 October 1943. AWM photo.
A Filipino woman and child killed by Japanese forces in the Manila massacre
A young Chinese girl from a Japanese 'comfort battalion' being interviewed by a British officer. Rangoon, Burma, 1945
American stretcher party carrying a wounded soldier through a devastated Manila street, 23 February 1945
The damaged by American carrier aircraft in the Sibuyan Sea.

The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

The Japanese leadership looked to base the conduct of the war against America on the historical experiences of the successful wars against China (1894–95) and Russia (1904–05), in both of which a strong continental power was defeated by reaching limited military objectives, not by total conquest.

Japanese version of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, April 17, 1895.

Treaty of Shimonoseki

4 links

Japanese version of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, April 17, 1895.
Independence Gate (front), Seoul, South Korea A symbol of the end of Korea's tributary relationship with the Qing Empire
The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed
Shunpanrō interior
Signing of Treaty of Shimonoseki
Convention of retrocession of the Liaotung peninsula, 8 November 1895
The Shunpanrō in 2004

The Treaty of Shimonoseki (下関条約), also known as Treaty of Maguan in China and Treaty of Bakan (馬關條約) in the period before and during WWII in Japan, was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel (春帆樓), Shimonoseki, Japan on April 17, 1895, between the Empire of Japan and Qing China, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.

This would prove to be a mistake, as Japan would end up occupying Korea by 1905 and expand into Russia's sphere of influence with the Russo-Japanese war, and then encroach upon Germany's port in Shandong during World War I.

Joseon

4 links

The last dynastic kingdom of Korea, lasting just over 500 years.

The last dynastic kingdom of Korea, lasting just over 500 years.

Territory of Joseon after King Sejong's conquest of Jurchen in 1433
King Taejo's portrait
Territory of Joseon after King Sejong's conquest of Jurchen in 1433
The throne at Gyeongbok Palace
Portrait of Ha Yeon, who served as Yeonguijeong during the King Sejong's reign
A page from the Hunmin Jeongeum Eonhae, a partial translation of Hunminjeongeum, the original promulgation of the Korean alphabet
Portrait of the neo-Confucian scholar, Jo Gwang-jo (1482–1519)
Jeong Cheol (1536–1593), head of the Western faction
The Turtle ship (replica)
The Turtle Ship interior
A Korean painting depicting two Jurchen warriors and their horses
Portrait of Kim Yuk 김육 (1570–1658), an early Silhak philosopher of the Joseon period
Hwaseong Fortress in Suwon
Sinjeong, Queen Regent of Joseon. She served as nominal regent of Joseon, who selected Gojong to place upon the throne.
Heungseon Daewongun
Emperor Gojong
The Phoenix Throne of the king of Joseon in Gyeongbok Palace
Portrait of Chief State Councillor Chae Je-gong (1720–1799)
Portrait of the Inspector General Yun Bonggu (1681–1767)
Portrait of Kim Hu (1751–1805), a military officer of the Joseon Dynasty
Woman's mourning clothes in Joseon
A portrait of a civil bureaucrat in the Joseon period
A Joseon painting which represents the Chungin (literally "middle people"), equivalent to the petite bourgeoisie
Men's (right) and Women's (left) clothes (Hanbok) of Joseon period. A portrait painted by Shin Yun-bok (1758–?).
Male dress of a Seonbi. A portrait painted by Yi Jae-gwan (1783–1837).
Royal ceremony with Joseon era clothing
Early Joseon landscape painting by Seo Munbo in the late 15th century
15th century. Joseon period, Korea. Blue and white porcelain jar with plum and bamboo design.
Landscape of Mt. Geumgang by Kim Hong-do (1745–1806) in 1788
Korean celestial globe first made by the scientist Jang Yeong-sil during the reign of King Sejong
Surviving portion of the Water Clock (Jagyeongnu)
Japanese illustration of King Gojong and Queen Min receiving Inoue Kaoru
This compilation photo, taken about 1915, shows the following royal family members, from left: Prince Imperial Ui, the 6th son of Gojong; Emperor Sunjong, the 2nd son and the last monarch of Korea; Prince Imperial Yeong, the 7th son; Gojong, the former King; Empress Yun, wife of Sunjong; Lady Kim, wife of Prince Imperial Ui; and Yi Geon, the eldest son of Prince Ui. The seated child in the front row is Princess Deokhye, Gojong's last child. (This is a compilation of individual photographs since the Japanese did not allow them to be in the same room at the same time, and some were forced to leave Korea).
Seal used from 1392 to 1401
Seal used from 1401 to 1637<ref>Veritable Records of Taejong, vol. 1, year of 1401, 6th month, 12nd day</ref>
Seal used between 1637<ref>Veritable Records of Injoo, vol. 35, year of 1637, 11th month, 20nd day.</ref> and 1653<ref>{{cite book |author= 김지남 |date= 1888 |title= Record of Joseon Diplomacy |volume= 3 |chapter=9|url= https://kyudb.snu.ac.kr/book/view.do?book_cd=GK00882_00 |page=126~127 }}</ref>
Seal used between 1653 and 1776<ref>Veritable Records of Jeongjo, vol. 2, year of 1776, 8th month, 18nd day</ref>
Seal used between 1776 and 1876
The seal was produced on December 15, 1876, for use in Japanese-related state documents.
"Daegunjubo" designed to replace the former sergeant "Joseongukwangjiin", used as the seal of the king for documents such as appointment documents for high-ranking government officials and ordinances proclaimed in Korea, between 1882 and 1897<ref name="great">Journal of the Royal Secretariat, vol. 2902, year of 1882, 7th month, 1nd day</ref>
"DaejoseonDaegunjubo" were used as the 'seal of state' for credentials in diplomatic relations with other countries, between 1882{{clarification needed|date=April 2022}}

With the conclusion of the 1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War with the Treaty of Portsmouth, the way was open for Japan to take control of Korea.

In 1910 the Japanese Empire finally annexed Korea.

Korean Empire

3 links

Korean monarchical state proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty.

Korean monarchical state proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty.

Territory of the Korean Empire 1903–1905. The disputed Gando region is shaded in lighter green.
Seal of the Korean Empire
Territory of the Korean Empire 1903–1905. The disputed Gando region is shaded in lighter green.
National seal
Coat of arms
Part of the old Russian legation building in Seoul. In 1896, King Gojong and his crown prince took refuge from the Gyeongbok Palace at the Russian legation in Seoul.
In 1900, Western attire became the official uniform for the Korean civil officials. Several years later, all Korean policemen were assigned to wear modernized uniforms.
Yi Yong-ik, Chief of the Bureau of Currency during the Korean Empire
A streetcar in Seoul, 1903
The headquarters office building of the Hanseong Electric Company
Japanese infantry marching through Seoul during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904
Yi Beom-jin, an official, later independence fighter against the Japanese. He supported secret emissaries sent by Gojong to The Hague in 1907.
Gwangmu Emperor sent three secret emissaries, Yi Tjoune, Yi Sang-seol and Yi Wi-jong, to The Hague, Netherlands in 1907.(Hague Secret Emissary Affair)
Hwangudan in c. 1906.
alt=|Replica of the Stamp of Gojong used after he became an emperor
First Naval Ship of Korean Empire, KIS Yangmu
State funeral of Min Young-hwan who committed suicide for protest against the treaty

The empire stood until Japan's annexation of Korea in August 1910.

In September 1905, Russia and Japan signed the Treaty of Portsmouth, ending the Russo-Japanese War and firmly establishing Japan's consolidation of influence on Korea.