(clockwise from top left)Imperial Japanese Navy landing force in military gas masks in the Battle of Shanghai

Japanese Type 92 heavy machine gunners during Operation Ichi-Go

Victims of the Nanjing Massacre on the shore of the Qinhuai River

Chinese machine gun nest in the Battle of Wuhan

Japanese aircraft during the bombing of Chongqing

Chinese Expeditionary Force marching in India
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theatre from 1942 to 1945
The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
Japanese troops entering Shenyang during the Mukden Incident
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Japanese Empire's territorial expansion
Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
A baby sits in the remains of a Shanghai train station on 'Bloody Saturday', 1937
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek announced the Kuomintang policy of resistance against Japan at Lushan on 10 July 1937, three days after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
Japanese landing near Shanghai, November 1937
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
Japanese troops in the ruins of Shanghai
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
Soviet embassy in Nanjing is being burned down by arson on 1 January 1938.
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer with a shin gunto
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
National Revolutionary Army soldiers during the 1938 Yellow River flood
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
Map showing the extent of Japanese occupation in 1941 (in red)
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
Theaters (military operational regions) of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army from late 1938 to early 1940
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
Wang Jingwei and officers of the Collaborationist Chinese Army
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Chinese soldiers in house-to-house fighting in the Battle of Taierzhuang, March–April 1938
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
National Revolutionary Army soldiers march to the front in 1939.
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
Eighth Route Army Commander Zhu De with a KMT "Blue Sky, White Sun" emblem cap
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
115th Division of the Eighth Route Army Lieutenant General (NRA rank) Lin Biao in NRA uniform
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
War declaration against Japan by the Chongqing Nationalist Government on 9 December 1941
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Madame Chiang with Lieutenant General Joseph Stilwell in 1942, Burma
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
A United States poster from the United China Relief organization advocating aid to China.
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in 1943 during World War II.
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
H. H. Kung and Adolf Hitler in Berlin
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
I-16 with Chinese insignia. The I-16 was the main fighter plane used by the Chinese Air Force and Soviet volunteers.
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
Flying Tigers Commander Claire Lee Chennault
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
A "blood chit" issued to American Volunteer Group pilots requesting all Chinese to offer rescue and protection
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
Free Thai, American and Chinese military officers in China during the war
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
The India–China airlift delivered approximately 650,000 tons of materiel to China at a cost of 1,659 men and 594 aircraft.
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
French colonial troops retreating to the Chinese border after the Japanese coup d'état in March 1945
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
Chinese Muslim cavalry
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Chinese Muslim soldiers
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
WWII victory parade at Chongqing on 3 September 1945
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
Japanese troops surrendering to the Chinese
National Diet Building, 1930
The Chinese return to Liuzhou in July 1945.
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
China War of Resistance Against Japan Memorial Museum on the site where the Marco Polo Bridge Incident took place
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
The Taiwan Strait and the island of Taiwan
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Casualties of a mass panic during a June 1941 Japanese bombing of Chongqing. More than 5,000 civilians died during the first two days of air raids in 1939.
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Japanese war crime against a Chinese POW
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces with gas masks and rubber gloves during a chemical attack near Chapei in the Battle of Shanghai
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Chinese suicide bomber putting on an explosive vest made out of Model 24 hand grenades to use in an attack on Japanese tanks at the Battle of Taierzhuang
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan.

- Second Sino-Japanese War

Japan's armed forces initially achieved large-scale military successes during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and the Pacific War.

- Empire of Japan

30 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930

World War II

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Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930
Adolf Hitler at a German Nazi political rally in Nuremberg, August 1933
Benito Mussolini inspecting troops during the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935
The bombing of Guernica in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, sparked fears abroad in Europe that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.
Japanese Imperial Army soldiers during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Red Army artillery unit during the Battle of Lake Khasan, 1938
Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured just before signing the Munich Agreement, 29 September 1938
German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (right) and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, after signing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, 23 August 1939
Soldiers of the German Wehrmacht tearing down the border crossing into Poland, 1 September 1939
Soldiers of the Polish Army during the defence of Poland, September 1939
Finnish machine gun nest aimed at Soviet Red Army positions during the Winter War, February 1940
German advance into Belgium and Northern France, 10 May-4 June 1940, swept past the Maginot Line (shown in dark red)
London seen from St. Paul's Cathedral after the German Blitz, 29 December 1940
Soldiers of the British Commonwealth forces from the Australian Army's 9th Division during the Siege of Tobruk; North African Campaign, September 1941
German Panzer III of the Afrika Korps advancing across the North African desert, April-May 1941
European theatre of World War II animation map, 1939–1945 – Red: Western Allies and the Soviet Union after 1941; Green: Soviet Union before 1941; Blue: Axis powers
German soldiers during the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Axis powers, 1941
Soviet civilians leaving destroyed houses after a German bombardment during the Battle of Leningrad, 10 December 1942
Japanese soldiers entering Hong Kong, 8 December 1941
The USS Arizona (BB-39) was a total loss in the Japanese surprise air attack on the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Sunday 7 December 1941.
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill seated at the Casablanca Conference, January 1943
Map of Japanese military advances through mid-1942
US Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign, in the Pacific theatre, 1942
Red Army soldiers on the counterattack during the Battle of Stalingrad, February 1943
American 8th Air Force Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombing raid on the Focke-Wulf factory in Germany, 9 October 1943
U.S. Navy SBD-5 scout plane flying patrol over USS Washington (BB-56) and USS Lexington (CV-16) during the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, 1943
Red Army troops in a counter-offensive on German positions at the Battle of Kursk, July 1943
Ruins of the Benedictine monastery, during the Battle of Monte Cassino, Italian Campaign, May 1944
American troops approaching Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944
German SS soldiers from the Dirlewanger Brigade, tasked with suppressing the Warsaw Uprising against Nazi occupation, August 1944
General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines during the Battle of Leyte, 20 October 1944
Yalta Conference held in February 1945, with Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 3 June 1945.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on 9 August 1945.
Ruins of Warsaw in 1945, after the deliberate destruction of the city by the occupying German forces
Defendants at the Nuremberg trials, where the Allied forces prosecuted prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany for crimes against humanity
Post-war border changes in Central Europe and creation of the Communist Eastern Bloc
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming the Israeli Declaration of Independence at the Independence Hall, 14 May 1948
World War II deaths
Bodies of Chinese civilians killed by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Nanking Massacre in December 1937
Schutzstaffel (SS) female camp guards removing prisoners' bodies from lorries and carrying them to a mass grave, inside the German Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 1945
Prisoner identity photograph taken by the German SS of a Polish Catholic girl who died in Auschwitz. Approximately 230,000 children were held prisoner and used in forced labour and Nazi medical experiments.
Polish civilians wearing blindfolds photographed just before their execution by German soldiers in Palmiry forest, 1940
Soviet partisans hanged by the German army. The Russian Academy of Sciences reported in 1995 civilian victims in the Soviet Union at German hands totalled 13.7 million dead, twenty percent of the 68 million persons in the occupied Soviet Union.
B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers on the Boeing assembly line in Wichita, Kansas, 1944
A V-2 rocket launched from a fixed site in Peenemünde, 21 June 1943
Nuclear Gadget being raised to the top of the detonation "shot tower", at Alamogordo Bombing Range; Trinity nuclear test, New Mexico, July 1945

The exact causes of World War II are debated, but contributing factors included the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, the Spanish Civil War, the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Soviet–Japanese border conflicts, the rise of fascism in Europe and rising European tensions since World War I.

From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan (along with other countries later on).

The Pacific War Council as photographed on 12 October 1942. Pictured are representatives from the United States (seated), Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, China, the Netherlands, and the Philippine Commonwealth

Pacific War

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The theater of World War II that was fought in Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and Oceania.

The theater of World War II that was fought in Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and Oceania.

The Pacific War Council as photographed on 12 October 1942. Pictured are representatives from the United States (seated), Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, China, the Netherlands, and the Philippine Commonwealth
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theater from 1942 to 1945
A mass grave of Chinese prisoners killed by the Imperial Japanese Army in the 1937 Nanjing Massacre
Chinese casualties of a mass panic during a June 1941 Japanese aerial bombing of Chongqing
USS Arizona (BB-39) burned for two days after being hit by a Japanese bomb in the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Japanese aerial photo of battleship HMS Prince of Wales (top) and battlecruiser HMS Repulse under attack.
British forces surrender Singapore to the Japanese, February 1942
The Bombing of Darwin, Australia, 19 February 1942
Surrender of US forces at Corregidor, Philippines, May 1942
Dutch and Australian PoWs at Tarsau, in Thailand in 1943. 22,000 Australians were captured by the Japanese; 8,000 died as prisoners of war.
US General Douglas MacArthur, Commander of Allied forces in the South-West Pacific Area, with Australian Prime Minister John Curtin
Japanese advance until mid-1942
A B-25 bomber takes off from USS Hornet (CV-8) as part of the Doolittle Raid.
The aircraft carrier USS Lexington (CV-2) explodes on 8 May 1942, several hours after being damaged by a Japanese carrier air attack.
under attack by B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers
US Marines rest in the field during the Guadalcanal campaign in November 1942.
Chinese troops during the Battle of Changde in November 1943
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and General Joseph Stilwell, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theatre from 1942 to 1945
Allied attack routes against the Empire of Japan
American forces landing at Rendova Island, June, 1943
The Allied leaders of the Asian and Pacific Theaters: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill meeting at the Cairo Conference in 1943
The torpedoed, as seen through the periscope of an American submarine, USS Nautilus (SS-168), in June 1942
The, the largest non-nuclear submarines ever constructed
Chinese forces on M3A3 Stuart tanks on the Ledo Road
British Indian troops during the Battle of Imphal
Marines fire captured mountain gun during the attack on Garapan, Saipan, 21 June 1944.
US Marines during mopping up operations on Peleliu, September 1944
The Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku and two destroyers under attack in the Battle of the Philippine Sea
The four engagements in the Battle of Leyte Gulf
General Douglas MacArthur wading ashore at Leyte
US troops approaching Japanese positions near Baguio, Luzon, 23 March 1945
Royal Marines landing at Ramree
British soldiers patrolling the ruins of a Burmese town during the advance on Mandalay, January 1945
Iwo Jima location map
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima, an iconic photograph taken by Joe Rosenthal on February 23, 1945, depicts six United States Marines raising a US flag atop Mount Suribachi.
USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) burns after being hit by two kamikazes. At Okinawa, the kamikazes caused 4,900 American deaths.
US Marines pass a dead Japanese soldier in a destroyed village on Okinawa, April 1945
US LVTs land Australian soldiers at Balikpapan on 7 July 1945.
American B-29 Superfortresses drop incendiary bombs over the port city of Kobe, June 1945
The mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 60,000 feet (18 km) into the air on the morning of 9 August 1945
Pacific Fleet marines of the Soviet Navy hoist the Soviet naval ensign in Port Arthur, on 1 October 1945.
Douglas MacArthur signs the formal Japanese Instrument of Surrender on USS Missouri (BB-63), 2 September 1945.
American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa, November 1943
Indian prisoners of war shot and bayoneted by Japanese soldiers
IJA soldiers after a suicide charge on US Marine positions in Guadalcanal
Charred remains of civilians killed in the 10 March firebombing of Tokyo, codenamed Operation Meetinghouse, which killed an estimated 100,000 people, March 1945
Australian POW Sergeant Leonard G. Siffleet of M Special Unit being beheaded by a Japanese officer, Yasuno Chikao, on 24 October 1943. AWM photo.
A Filipino woman and child killed by Japanese forces in the Manila massacre
A young Chinese girl from a Japanese 'comfort battalion' being interviewed by a British officer. Rangoon, Burma, 1945
American stretcher party carrying a wounded soldier through a devastated Manila street, 23 February 1945
The damaged by American carrier aircraft in the Sibuyan Sea.

It was geographically the largest theater of the war, including the vast Pacific Ocean theater, the South West Pacific theater, the Second Sino-Japanese War, and the Soviet–Japanese War.

The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

Republic of China (1912–1949)

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Commonly recognised as the official designation of China from 1912 to 1949, when it was a country in East Asia based in Mainland China, prior to the relocation of its central government to Taiwan as a result of the Chinese Civil War.

Commonly recognised as the official designation of China from 1912 to 1949, when it was a country in East Asia based in Mainland China, prior to the relocation of its central government to Taiwan as a result of the Chinese Civil War.

Land controlled by the Republic of China (1946) shown in dark green; land claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of the Republic of China.
Yuan Shikai (left) and Sun Yat-sen (right) with flags representing the early republic
Major Chinese warlord coalitions during the "Nanjing Decade".
Cooperation with Germany
China had been at war with Japan since 1931.
Chinese Nationalist Army soldiers during the 1938 Yellow River flood
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China during 1930s
Beiyang Army troops on parade
The NRA during World War II
Boat traffic and development along Suzhou Creek, Shanghai, 1920
A 10 Custom Gold Units bill, 1930

China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 when a skirmish between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army culminated in a full-scale invasion by Japan.

Chiang in 1943

Chiang Kai-shek

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Chinese Nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader, who served as the leader of the Republic of China from 1928 to until his death in 1975.

Chinese Nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader, who served as the leader of the Republic of China from 1928 to until his death in 1975.

Chiang in 1943
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
Chiang in the early 1920s
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Duke of Zhou
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together

Trying to avoid a war with Japan while hostilities with the CCP continued, he was kidnapped in the Xi'an Incident, and obliged to form an Anti-Japanese United Front with the CCP.

Following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937, he mobilized China for the Second Sino-Japanese War.

China

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Country in East Asia.

Country in East Asia.

China (today's Guangdong), Mangi (inland of Xanton), and Cataio (inland of China and Chequan, and including the capital Cambalu, Xandu, and a marble bridge) are all shown as separate regions on this 1570 map by Abraham Ortelius
10,000 years old pottery, Xianren Cave culture (18000–7000 BCE)
Yinxu, the ruins of the capital of the late Shang dynasty (14th century BCE)
China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang, is famed for having united the Warring States' walls to form the Great Wall of China. Most of the present structure, however, dates to the Ming dynasty.
Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC
The Tang dynasty at its greatest extent
199x199px
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
The Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China to defeat the anti-foreign Boxers and their Qing backers. The image shows a celebration ceremony inside the Chinese imperial palace, the Forbidden City after the signing of the Boxer Protocol in 1901.
Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of Republic of China, one of the first republics in Asia.
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong toasting together in 1945 following the end of World War II
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the PRC in 1949.
The 1989 Tiananmen Square protests was ended by a military-led massacre which brought condemnations and sanctions against the Chinese government from various foreign countries.
Satellite image of China from NASA WorldWind
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for mainland China.
A giant panda, China's most famous endangered and endemic species, at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan
The Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world.
Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 CE
Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen. Huawei is the world's largest telecoms-equipment-maker and the second-largest manufacturer of smartphones in the world.
Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, one of the first Chinese spaceports
Internet penetration rates in China in the context of East Asia and Southeast Asia, 1995–2012
The Duge Bridge is the highest bridge in the world.
The Beijing Daxing International Airport features the world's largest single-building airport terminal.
The Port of Shanghai's deep water harbor on Yangshan Island in the Hangzhou Bay is the world's busiest container port since 2010.
A 2009 population density map of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan. The eastern coastal provinces are much more densely populated than the western interior.
Ethnolinguistic map of China
A trilingual sign in Sibsongbanna, with Tai Lü language on the top
Map of the ten largest cities in China (2010)
Beijing's Peking University, one of the top-ranked universities in China
Chart showing the rise of China's Human Development Index from 1970 to 2010
Geographic distribution of religions in China.  
 Chinese folk religion (including Confucianism, Taoism, and groups of Chinese Buddhism)
 Buddhism tout court
 Islam
 Ethnic minorities' indigenous religions
 Mongolian folk religion
 Northeast China folk religion influenced by Tungus and Manchu shamanism; widespread Shanrendao
Fenghuang County, an ancient town that harbors many architectural remains of Ming and Qing styles.
A Moon gate in a Chinese garden.
The stories in Journey to the West are common themes in Peking opera.
Map showing major regional cuisines of China
Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent and was invented in China more than 2,500 years ago.
Long March 2F launching Shenzhou spacecraft. China is one of the only three countries with independent human spaceflight capability.
The Tang dynasty at its greatest extent and Tang's protectorates
Lihaozhai High School in Jianshui, Yunnan. The sign is in Hani (Latin alphabet), Nisu (Yi script), and Chinese.
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
China topographic map with East Asia countries

Japan invaded China in 1937, starting the Second Sino-Japanese War and temporarily halting the civil war between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Kuomintang (KMT).

Allies of World War II

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The Allied leaders of the European theatre (left to right): Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meeting at the Tehran Conference in 1943
The Allied leaders of the Asian and Pacific Theater: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill meeting at the Cairo Conference in 1943
Wartime poster for the United Nations, created in 1941 by the U.S. Office of War Information
Wartime poster for the United Nations, created in 1943 by the U.S. Office of War Information
British Supermarine Spitfire fighter aircraft (bottom) flying past a German Heinkel He 111 bomber aircraft (top) during the Battle of Britain in 1940
British Crusader tanks during the North African Campaign
British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal under attack from Italian aircraft during the Battle of Cape Spartivento (27 Nov 1940)
British soldiers of the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry in Elst, Netherlands on 2 March 1945
Free French forces at the Battle of Bir Hakeim, 1942
FAFL Free French GC II/5 "LaFayette" receiving ex-USAAF Curtiss P-40 fighters at Casablanca, French Morocco
The French fleet scuttled itself rather than fall into the hands of the Axis after their invasion of Vichy France on 11 November 1942.
The fall of Damascus to the Allies, late June 1941. A car carrying Free French commanders General Georges Catroux and General Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme enters the city, escorted by French Circassian cavalry (Gardes Tcherkess).
Soviet soldiers and T-34 tanks advancing near Bryansk in 1942
Soviet soldiers fighting in the ruins of Stalingrad during the Battle of Stalingrad
Soviet Il-2 ground attack aircraft attacking German ground forces during the Battle of Kursk, 1943
American Douglas SBD Dauntless dive-bomber aircraft attacking the Japanese cruiser Mikuma during the Battle of Midway in June 1942
U.S. Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign in November 1942
American Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber aircraft during the bombing of oil refineries in Ploiești, Romania on 1 August 1943 during Operation Tidal Wave
U.S. soldiers departing landing craft during the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944 known as D-Day
Philippine Scouts at Fort William McKinley firing a 37 mm anti-tank gun in training
Soldiers of the National Revolutionary Army associated with Nationalist China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War
Soldiers of the First Workers' and Peasants' Army associated with Communist China, during the Sino-Japanese War
Victorious Chinese Communist soldiers holding the flag of the Republic of China during the Hundred Regiments Offensive
Members of the Belgian Resistance with a Canadian soldier in Bruges, September 1944 during the Battle of the Scheldt
Norwegian soldiers on the Narvik front, May 1940
Pilots of the No. 303 "Kościuszko" Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain
Polish partisan of the Home Army (AK), "Jędrusie" unit, holding a Browning wz.1928 light machine gun
Partisans and Chetniks escorting captured Germans through Užice, autumn 1941
Partisan leader Marshal Josip Broz Tito with Winston Churchill in 1944
Chetniks leader General Mihailovic with members of the U.S. military mission, Operation Halyard, 1944
Romanian soldiers in Transylvania, September–October 1944
The dead bodies of Benito Mussolini, his mistress Clara Petacci, and several Fascist leaders, hanging for public display after they were executed by Italian partisans in 1945
The first version of the flag of the United Nations, introduced in April 1945
A British poster from 1941, promoting the greater alliance against Germany
U.S. government poster showing a friendly Soviet soldier, 1942

The Allies were an international military coalition formed during the Second World War (1939–1945) to oppose the Axis powers, led by Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, and Fascist Italy.

China had already been at war with Japan since 1937, and formally joined the Allies in December 1941.

Wang Jingwei regime

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The Wang Jingwei regime (dark red) and Mengjiang (light red) within the Empire of Japan (pink) at its furthest extent
Wang Jingwei was head of the Reorganized National Government.
The Wang Jingwei regime (dark red) and Mengjiang (light red) within the Empire of Japan (pink) at its furthest extent
Map of the Republic of China that was controlled by the reorganized national government in 1939 (dark green) Mengjiang was incorporated in 1940 (light green)
Wall bearing a government slogan that proclaims: "Support Mr. Wang Jingwei!"
Water Resource Committee of Wang Jingwei's puppet government
Advertisement of congratulation towards the establishment of the new Nationalist government on Taiwan Nichi Nichi Shimpō
Wang Jingwei at a military parade
Area of control of the invading Japanese forces
Wang Jingwei, Japanese ambassador Abe Nobuyuki, and Manchukuo ambassador Zang Shiyi sign the joint declaration, 30 November 1940
Wang Jingwei with ambassador Heinrich Georg Stahmer at the German embassy in 1941
Unused example of a Wang Jingwei regime passport, circa 1941
President Wang Jingwei at a military parade on the occasion of the third anniversary of the establishment of the government
Type 94 tankettes on parade (note the driver's Stahlhelm and the KMT blue and white sun emblem on the tanks)

The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, the government of the puppet state of the Empire of Japan in eastern China called simply the Republic of China.

The region that it would administer was initially seized by Japan throughout the late 1930s with the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Nanjing

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Capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the second largest city in the East China region.

Capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the second largest city in the East China region.

Purple Mountain or Zijin Shan, located to the east of the walled city of Nanjing, is the origin of the nickname "Jinling". The water in the front is Xuanwu Lake
A bixie sculpture at Xiao Xiu's tomb (AD518). Stone sculpture of the southern dynasties is widely considered as the city's icon.
The Śarīra pagoda in Qixia Temple. It was built in AD601 and rebuilt in the 10th century.
Ming Xiaoling is the mausoleum of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty
The Ming Palace, also known as the "Forbidden City of Nanjing", was the imperial palace of the early Ming dynasty, when Nanjing was the capital of China.
Nanjing City Wall near Xuanwumen Gate
Mochou Lake
The Presidential Palace of the National Government of the Republic of China in Nanjing, 1927
Japanese soldiers entering the walled city of Nanjing through the Gate of China
Hall of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
Map including Nanjing (labeled as 南京 NAN-CHING (NANKING) (Walled)) (AMS, 1955)
Map of Nanjing (labeled as 南京 NAN-CHING (NANKING))
Nanjing Region – Lower Yangtze Basin and Eastern China.
Autumn maple leaves in Qixia Mountain Temple.
7 December 2013 image from NASA's Terra Satellite of the Eastern China smog
People's Government of Nanjing City
Qinhuai River in 1920s
Old city of Nanjing 'Old Gate East'
Xinjiekou, Nanjing
Naning city centre in May 1987
Nanjing Zifeng Tower and the Purple Mountain in the background
Nanjing South Railway Station
Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge
Nanjing Metro Construction Plan by 2022
Nanjing Lukou International Airport, NKG
Third Nanjing Yangtze Bridge
Jiangnan Examination Hall
Kunqu
Nanjing Library
Nanjing Museum
Qinhuai River
Central Stadium
Nanjing Olympic Sports Center
City Wall of Nanjing and Yijiangmen Gate
East Gate of China
Qinhuai River
Jiming Temple
Jinghai Temple and Yuejiang Tower
Xuanwu Lake
The Porcelain Pagoda of Nanjing
Classical buildings in the Mochou Lake
Spirit Way of Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Tower of Linggu Temple
Qixia Temple
Former Presidential Palace
Former National Assembly Building
Yihe Road
Former Ministry of Foreign Affairs Buildings
Former Capital Hotel
Former Academia Sinica Buildings
Gate of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery
Gate of Presidential Residence at Purple Mountain
National Purple Mountain Observatory
Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs
Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders
Jinling Hotel
Nanjing Youth Olympic Towers
Nanjing University, Gulou campus
Nanjing University, Xianlin campus
Southeast University, Sipailou campus
Nanjing Normal University, Suiyuan campus

The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1853–64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei (1940–45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

In 1937, the Empire of Japan started a full-scale invasion of China after invading Manchuria in 1931, beginning the Second Sino-Japanese War (often considered a theater of World War II).

Kwantung Army headquarters in Hsinking, Manchukuo

Kwantung Army

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General army of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1919 to 1945.

General army of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1919 to 1945.

Kwantung Army headquarters in Hsinking, Manchukuo
Kwantung Army on manoeuvres in 1941.
Kwantung Army in Mongolia during the Battle of Khalkhyn Gol, July 1939
Map of Japanese Hokushin-ron plans for a potential attack on the Soviet Union. Dates indicate the year that Japan gained control of the territory.
Repatriated Japanese soldiers returning from Siberia in 1946

The Kwantung Army was largely responsible for the establishment of the Japanese puppet-state of Manchukuo in Manchuria and functioned as one of the main Japanese fighting forces during the 1937–1945 Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937.

In 1895, Qing China had granted the Kwantung Leased Territory, a valuable concession territory on the Liaodong Peninsula, to the Empire of Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki after their victory in the First Sino-Japanese War.

Wang Jingwei

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Chinese politician.

Chinese politician.

Wang Jingwei in his twenties.
Former residence of Wang Jingwei in Nanjing.
Wang Jingwei and Chiang Kai-Shek in 1926
Wang Jingwei (second from left) and Chen Bijun (far left) in British Malaya, 1935.
Wang Jingwei on a 1935 cover of Time magazine
Wang receiving German diplomats while head of state in 1941
Hideki Tojo and Wang Jingwei meet in 1942

Wang remained inside the Kuomintang, but continued to have disagreements with Chiang until the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, after which he accepted an invitation from the Japanese Empire to form a Japanese-supported collaborationist government in Nanking.