A report on Empire of Japan

The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
National Diet Building, 1930
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

Historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan.

- Empire of Japan

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Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya (1913)

Japan during World War I

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Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya (1913)
Japanese troops landing near Tsingtao.

Japan participated in World War I from 1914 to 1918 in an alliance with Entente Powers and played an important role in securing the sea lanes in the West Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Imperial German Navy as a member of the Allies.

Royal Navy

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United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

A late 16th-century painting of the Spanish Armada in battle with English warships
, Nelson's flagship at Trafalgar, is still a commissioned Royal Navy ship, although she is now permanently kept in dry-dock
The Battle of Trafalgar, depicted here in its opening phase
The routes of Captain James Cook's three voyages.
Heavy cruiser berthed in Admiralty Floating Dock No. 1 at the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda, 1934.
Britannia Royal Naval College
, a aircraft carrier on sea trials in June 2017
, the Type 45 guided missile destroyer
, the Type 23 frigate designed for anti-submarine warfare.
, a Royal Navy Antarctic patrol ship
, the first nuclear submarine
The F-35B aircraft are operated from the Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers.
Royal Marines in Sangin, 2010
Royal Marines Band Service members beside HMS Duncan in 2010
during HMNB Devonport's Navy day, 2006.
alongside Faslane Naval Base
A Merlin HC3 and Wildcat AH1 both of Commando Helicopter Force, based at RNAS Yeovilton.
A Royal Navy Merlin HM2 at RNAS Culdrose.
The RN presence in the Persian Gulf typically consists of a Type 45 destroyer and a squadron of minehunters supported by an RFA "mothership"
Portsmouth dockyard during the Trafalgar 200 International Fleet Review. Seen here are commissioned ships from; the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Pakistan, Ireland and Nigeria.
HMNB Clyde, Faslane, home of the submarines
Type 23 frigates or "Duke class" are named after British dukes.
The Queen and Admiral Sir Alan West during a Fleet Review

The lack of an Imperial fortress in the region of Asia, the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean was always to be a weakness throughout the nineteenth century as the former North American colonies that had become the United States of America had multiplied towards the Pacific coast of North America, and the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire both had ports on the Pacific and had begun building large, modern fleets which went to war with each other in 1905.

A conté of Takamori, by Edoardo Chiossone.

Saigō Takamori

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Japanese samurai and nobleman.

Japanese samurai and nobleman.

A conté of Takamori, by Edoardo Chiossone.
A portrait of Takamori by Ishikawa Shizumasa
The Seikanron debate. Saigō Takamori is sitting in the center. 1877 woodblock print.
Saigō preparing for war
Saigō Takamori (upper right) directing his troops at the Battle of Shiroyama
Saigō Takamori Gunmusho (軍務所) banknote, issued in 1877 to finance his war effort. Japan Currency Museum.
Monument of Satsu Do Toubaku no Mitsuyaku (Gion, Kyoto, Japan)
Saigō Takamori's statue near the southern entrance of Ueno Park.
The deathplace monument at Shiroyama-chō, Kagoshima
Aikana (1837-1902)
Saigō Itoko (1843-1922)
Saigō Kikujirō (1861-1928)
Saigō Toratarō (1866-1919)
Saigō Jūdō (1843-1902)
Portrait of Saigo Takamori, faithful depiction by the acquaintance Tokonami Masayoshi in 1887.
Woodblock print of Saigo Takamori by Hasegawa Sadanobu II which describes his career, November 1877

Saigō did insist, however, that Japan should go to war with Korea in the Seikanron debate of 1873 due to Korea's refusal to recognize the legitimacy of the Emperor Meiji as head of state of the Empire of Japan, and insulting treatment meted out to Japanese envoys attempting to establish trade and diplomatic relations.

Wang Jingwei

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Chinese politician.

Chinese politician.

Wang Jingwei in his twenties.
Former residence of Wang Jingwei in Nanjing.
Wang Jingwei and Chiang Kai-Shek in 1926
Wang Jingwei (second from left) and Chen Bijun (far left) in British Malaya, 1935.
Wang Jingwei on a 1935 cover of Time magazine
Wang receiving German diplomats while head of state in 1941
Hideki Tojo and Wang Jingwei meet in 1942

Wang remained inside the Kuomintang, but continued to have disagreements with Chiang until the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, after which he accepted an invitation from the Japanese Empire to form a Japanese-supported collaborationist government in Nanking.

Japanese Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu, under whose administration the Twenty-One Demands were drafted

Twenty-One Demands

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Japanese Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu, under whose administration the Twenty-One Demands were drafted
Eki Hioki (日置益)
"The Chinese's Acceptance of the Twenty-One Demands" signed by Yuan Shikai
China unprepared to answer 21 demands by Japan in 1915; Bradley in Chicago Daily News March 13, 1915

The Twenty-One Demands (対華21ヶ条要求; ) was a set of demands made during the First World War by the Empire of Japan under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu to the government of the Republic of China on 18 January 1915.

Prussian (and later German) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, right, with General Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, left, and General Albrecht von Roon, centre. Although Bismarck was a civilian politician and not a military officer, he wore a military uniform as part of the Prussian militarist culture of the time. From a painting by Carl Steffeck

Militarism

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Belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values.

Belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values.

Prussian (and later German) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, right, with General Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, left, and General Albrecht von Roon, centre. Although Bismarck was a civilian politician and not a military officer, he wore a military uniform as part of the Prussian militarist culture of the time. From a painting by Carl Steffeck
Otto von Bismarck, a civilian, wearing a cuirassier officer's metal Pickelhaube
Militarism in Nazi Germany
Military parade in India
Japanese march into Zhengyangmen of Beijing after capturing the city in July 1937
North Korean propaganda mural
the Philippine Army in Malolos Bulacan ca.1899
Large nuclear weapons stockpile with global range (dark blue)
Military parade during Republic Day celebrations in Ankara
A pie chart showing global military expenditures by country for 2019, in US$ billions, according to SIPRI.
Members of the Venezuelan armed forces carrying Chávez eyes flags saying, "Chávez lives, the fight continues".

Some notable cases include the Ancient Assyrian Empire, the Greek city state of Sparta, the Roman Empire, the Aztec nation, the Mongol Empire, the Zulu Kingdom, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Habsburg/Habsburg-Lorraine Monarchies, the Ottoman Empire, the Empire of Japan, the Russian Empire, Soviet Union, North Korea, the United States of America, Nazi Germany, the Italian Empire during the rule of Benito Mussolini, the German Empire, the British Empire, and the First French Empire under Napoleon.

Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department Headquarters in 1931

Police services of the Empire of Japan

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Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department Headquarters in 1931
Japanese policeman circa 1875
Native Austronesian constables (巡警) and teacher (助教員) of Truk Island, circa 1930.

The Police System (警察制度) of the Empire of Japan comprised numerous police services, in many cases with overlapping jurisdictions.

Flag of Japan

Japanese nationalism

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Form of nationalism that asserts that the Japanese are a monolithic nation with a single immutable culture, and promotes the cultural unity of the Japanese.

Form of nationalism that asserts that the Japanese are a monolithic nation with a single immutable culture, and promotes the cultural unity of the Japanese.

Flag of Japan
Kyokujitsu-ki (the sun-with rays-flag) It was the ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy; and is now employed by Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force Ships
Naval ensign of the battleship Mikasa
Hideki Tōjō (right) and Nobusuke Kishi, October 1943
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere at its greatest extent
National and Imperial Seal
Bow of the battleship Mikasa

Starting from the Russo-Japanese War, Japan adopted the moniker "Empire of Japan" ("Dai Nippon Teikoku"), acquiring a colonial empire, with the acquisition of the Ryukyus (1879), Formosa (1895), the Liaodong Peninsula and Karafuto (1905), the South Seas Mandate islands (1918–19) and Joseon (Korea) (1905–10).

Marshall Islands

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Independent island country near the Equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.

Independent island country near the Equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.

Manila Galleon in the Marianas and Carolinas, c. 1590 Boxer Codex
Marshall Islanders sailing in traditional costume, c. 1899–1900
Marshall Islanders sailing, with sails brailed (reefed), c. 1899–1900
Battle of Kwajalein in 1944
Bikini Islanders departing from Bikini Atoll in March 1948
Mushroom cloud from the largest atmospheric nuclear test the United States ever conducted, Castle Bravo
Map of the Marshall Islands
Aerial view of Majuro, one of the many atolls that make up the Marshall Islands
Beach scenery at the islet of Eneko, Majuro
View of the coast of Bikini Atoll from above
View of Marshall Islands
Average monthly temperatures (red) and precipitation (blue) on Majuro
Panorama of Majuro, capital and largest city of Marshall Islands
Christians in the Marshall Islands
The Marshall Islands Capitol (now in disuse)
H.E. Hilda C. Heine, first woman and former president of the Marshall Islands, walking through the Memorial Amphitheater at Arlington National Cemetery Sept. 12, 2017
Former President Hilda Heine with Taiwan President Tsai Ing-wen in October 2017
The USCGC Oliver Berry and the RMIS Lomor on a joint patrol
Marshallese fans
A proportional representation of Marshall Islands exports, 2019
Coconut palms in the Marshall Islands

In World War I, the Empire of Japan occupied the Marshall Islands, which, in 1920, the League of Nations combined with other former German territories to form the South Seas Mandate.

Yamagata Aritomo

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Senior-ranking Japanese military commander, twice-elected Prime Minister of Japan, and a leading member of the genrō, an élite group of senior statesmen who dominated Japan after the Meiji Restoration.

Senior-ranking Japanese military commander, twice-elected Prime Minister of Japan, and a leading member of the genrō, an élite group of senior statesmen who dominated Japan after the Meiji Restoration.

Yamagata in his early years
Field Marshal Yamagata (c.1898).
Yamagata during his years as Prime Minister
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister of Japan. He was Yamagata's protégé and close ally.
Prince Yamagata Aritomo in his later years.
Yamagata Aritomo, unknown date

As the Imperial Japanese Army's inaugural Chief of Staff, he was the chief architect of the Empire of Japan's military and its reactionary ideology.