Empire of Japan

The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
National Diet Building, 1930
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

Historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan.

- Empire of Japan

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Chōshū Domain

Domain (han) of the Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan during the Edo period from 1600 to 1871.

Domain (han) of the Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan during the Edo period from 1600 to 1871.

Map of Japanese provinces (1868) with Nagato Province highlighted
The Chōshū Kiheitai fought against the shogunate in the Second Chōshū expedition and the Boshin War.
Mōri Takachika
Hagi Castle, the seat of the Mōri Lords of Chōshū

The Chōshū Domain was the most prominent anti-Tokugawa domain and formed the Satchō Alliance with the rival Satsuma Domain during the Meiji Restoration, becoming instrumental in the establishment of the Empire of Japan and the Meiji oligarchy.

German Empire

The period of the German Reich from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the November Revolution in 1918, when the German Reich changed its form of government from a monarchy to a republic.

The period of the German Reich from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the November Revolution in 1918, when the German Reich changed its form of government from a monarchy to a republic.

Chancellor Bismarck, the statesman who unified Germany with skillful political moves
Wilhelm I in 1884
Die Proklamation des Deutschen Kaiserreiches by Anton von Werner (1877), depicting the proclamation of Emperor William I (18 January 1871, Palace of Versailles). From left, on the podium (in black): Crown Prince Frederick (later Frederick III), his father the emperor, and Frederick I of Baden, proposing a toast to the new emperor. At centre (in white): Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, Prussian Chief of Staff.
A postage stamp from the Caroline Islands
German colonies and protectorates in 1914
The Krupp works in Essen, 1890
Tensions between Germany and the Catholic Church hierarchy as depicted in a chess game between Bismarck and Pope Pius IX. Between Berlin and Rome, Kladderadatsch, 1875
Prussian deportations of ethnic Poles (Polenausweisungen), 1909 painting by Wojciech Kossak
Crime; convicts in relation to the population, 1882–1886
Frederick III, emperor for only 99 days (9 March – 15 June 1888)
Wilhelm II in 1902
The Reichstag in the 1890s / early 1900s
Berlin in the late 19th century
Bismarck at the Berlin Conference, 1884
Flag of the German colonial empire
Hoisting of the German flag at Mioko, German New Guinea in 1884
Map of the world showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Entente's side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey.
German troops being mobilized, 1914
German Army positions, 1914
The Eastern Front at the time of the cease-fire and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
A war memorial in Berlin
Coats of arms and flags of the constituent states in 1900
Percentage of linguistic minorities of the German Empire in 1900 by Kreis
Emperor Wilhelm II, who was the Supreme Governor of the Evangelical Church of Prussia's older Provinces, and Empress Augusta Victoria after the inauguration of the Evangelical Church of the Redeemer in Jerusalem (Reformation Day, 31 October 1898)
War flag of the German Empire. In 1956, the Iron Cross was re-introduced as the symbol of the Bundeswehr, the modern German armed forces.
German territories lost in both World Wars are shown in black, while present-day Germany is marked dark grey on this 1914 map.
Different legal systems in Germany prior to 1900
Fields of law in the German Empire
Administrative map
Population density ({{circa|1885}})
Election constituencies for the Reichstag
Detailed map in 1893 with cities and larger towns
Danish
Dutch
Frisian
Polish
Czech (and Moravian)
Masurian
Kashubian
Sorbian
French
Walloon
Italian
Lithuanian
non-German
Distribution of Protestants and Catholics in Imperial Germany
Distribution of Protestants, Catholics and Jews in Imperial Germany (Meyers Konversationslexikon)
Distribution of Jews in Imperial Germany
Greater Imperial coat of arms of Germany
Middle Imperial coat of arms of Germany
Lesser Imperial coat of arms of Germany

Some key elements of the German Empire's authoritarian political structure were also the basis for conservative modernization in Imperial Japan under Meiji and the preservation of an authoritarian political structure under the tsars in the Russian Empire.

Clockwise from top:A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir

UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon

Korean refugees in front of a U.S. M46 Patton tank

U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon

F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft

Korean War

Fought between North Korea and South Korea from 1950 to 1953.

Fought between North Korea and South Korea from 1950 to 1953.

Clockwise from top:A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir

UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon

Korean refugees in front of a U.S. M46 Patton tank

U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon

F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft
Territory often changed hands early in the war, until the front stabilized.
Hundreds of thousands of South Koreans fled south in mid-1950 after the North Korean army invaded.
A U.S. howitzer position near the Kum River, 15 July
Man of the Year, the American soldier on Time magazine cover, 1951
G.I. comforting a grieving infantryman
M24 Chaffee light tanks of the US Army's 25th Infantry Division wait for an assault of North Korean T-34-85 tanks at Masan
Crew of an M-24 tank along the Nakdong River front, August 1950
Pershing and Sherman tanks of the 73rd Heavy Tank Battalion at the Pusan Docks, Korea.
General Douglas MacArthur, UN Command CiC (seated), observes the naval shelling of Incheon from USS Mount McKinley (AGC-7), 15 September 1950
Combat in the streets of Seoul
Pershing tanks in downtown Seoul during the Second Battle of Seoul in September 1950. In the foreground, United Nations troops round up North Korean prisoners-of-war.
US Air Force attacking railroads south of Wonsan on the eastern coast of North Korea
Chinese forces cross the frozen Yalu River.
Three commanders of PVA during the Korean War. From left to right: Chen Geng (1952), Peng Dehuai (1950–1952) and Deng Hua (1952–1953)
Soldiers from the US 2nd Infantry Division in action near the Ch'ongch'on River, 20 November 1950
A column of the US 1st Marine Division move through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir.
Map of the UN retreat in the wake of Chinese intervention
B-26 Invaders bomb logistics depots in Wonsan, North Korea, 1951
US Marines move out over rugged mountain terrain while closing with North Korean forces.
British UN troops advance alongside a Centurion tank, March 1951
US M46 Patton tanks, painted with tiger heads thought to demoralize Chinese forces
New Zealand artillery crew in action, 1952
Men from the Royal Australian Regiment, June 1953
Delegates sign the Korean Armistice Agreement in P'anmunjŏm.
A U.S. Army officer confers with South Korean soldiers at Observation Post (OP) Ouellette, viewing northward, in April 2008
The DMZ as seen from the north, 2005
Korean War memorials are found in every UN Command Korean War participant country; this one is in Pretoria, South Africa.
A soldier of the Dutch detachment of the UN forces in North Korea prepares to return sniper fire, 1952
To disrupt North Korean communications, USS Missouri (BB-63) fires a salvo from its 16-inch guns at shore targets near Chongjin, North Korea, 21 October 1950
A B-29 Superfortress bomber dropping its bombs
A US Navy Sikorsky HO4S flying near USS Sicily (CVE-118)
Pyongyang in May 1951
A USAF Douglas B-26B Invader of the 452nd Bombardment Wing bombing a target in North Korea, 29 May 1951
Mark 4 bomb, seen on display, transferred to the 9th Bombardment Wing, Heavy
South Korean soldiers walk among the bodies of political prisoners executed near Daejon, July 1950
Civilians killed during a night battle near Yongsan, August 1950
A US Marine guards North Korean prisoners of war aboard an American warship in 1951.
Two Hill 303 survivors after being rescued by US units, 17 August 1950
Bob Hope entertained X Corps in Korea on 26 October 1950.
The Korean Peninsula at night, shown in a 2012 composite photograph from NASA
North Koreans touring the Museum of American War Atrocities in 2009

Imperial Japan severely diminished the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire.

Red Army

The army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

The army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Red Guards unit of the Vulkan factory
Hammer and plough cockade used by the Red Army from 1918 to 1922, when it was replaced by the hammer and sickle.
Leon Trotsky and Demyan Bedny in 1918
Vladimir Lenin, Kliment Voroshilov, Leon Trotsky and soldiers, Petrograd, 1921
Soviet tanks during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, August 1939
Red Army soldiers display a captured Finnish banner, March 1940
Soviet gun crew in action during the Siege of Odessa, July 1941
Salute to the Red Army at the Royal Albert Hall, London in February 1943
Ivan Konev at the liberation of Prague by the Red Army in May 1945
Marshals Zhukov and Rokossovsky with General Sokolovsky leave the Brandenburg Gate after being decorated by Field Marshal Montgomery
Red Army victory banner, raised above the German Reichstag in May 1945
Monument to the Red Army, Berlin
Roza Shanina was a graduate of the Central Women's Sniper Training School credited with 59 confirmed kills.
The Battle of Stalingrad is considered by many historians as a decisive turning point of World War II.
People in Saint Petersburg at «Immortal regiment», carrying portraits of their ancestors who fought in World War II.
Benjamin Netanyahu and Red Army's Jewish veterans, Victory Day in Jerusalem, 9 May 2017
Kursants (cadets) of the Red Army Artillery School in Chuhuyiv, Ukraine, 1933
Red Army Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky, who was executed during the Great Purge in June 1937. Here in 1920 wearing the budenovka
The unofficial Red Army flag, since the Soviet ground forces never had an official flag

The Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, and its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan.

Map of the campaign

Satsuma Rebellion

Revolt of disaffected samurai against the new imperial government, nine years into the Meiji Era.

Revolt of disaffected samurai against the new imperial government, nine years into the Meiji Era.

Map of the campaign
Saigō Takamori (seated, in French uniform), surrounded by his officers, in traditional attire. News article in Le Monde illustré, 1877
Imperial Japanese Army officers of the Kumamoto garrison, who resisted Saigō Takamori's siege, 1877
The clash at Kagoshima
Imperial troops embarking at Yokohama to fight the Satsuma rebellion in 1877.
Shinohara Kunimoto
Battle of Shiroyama.
Imperial Japanese Army fortifications encircling Shiroyama. 1877 photograph.
Samurai fighting the Imperial army during the Subjugation of Kagoshima in Sasshu (Satsuma), by Yoshitoshi, 1877
Soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Satsuma Rebellion.
Kagoshima boto shutsujinzu by Yoshitoshi
Kumamoto Castle
Saigō Takamori Gunmusho (軍務所) banknote, issued in 1877 to finance his war effort. Japan Currency Museum.
Battle of Tabaruzaka: Imperial troops on the left, rebel samurai troops on the right
Battle of Tabaruzaka
Saigo's army clashes with the government's forces

Saigō's rebellion was the last and most serious of a series of armed uprisings against the new government of the Empire of Japan, the predecessor state to modern Japan.

Photograph of Battleship Row taken from a Japanese plane at the beginning of the attack. The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on USS West Virginia (BB-48). Two attacking Japanese planes can be seen: one over USS Neosho (AO-23) and one over the Naval Yard.

Attack on Pearl Harbor

Surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, just before 08:00 a.m., on Sunday, December 7, 1941.

Surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, just before 08:00 a.m., on Sunday, December 7, 1941.

Photograph of Battleship Row taken from a Japanese plane at the beginning of the attack. The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on USS West Virginia (BB-48). Two attacking Japanese planes can be seen: one over USS Neosho (AO-23) and one over the Naval Yard.
Pearl Harbor on October 30, 1941, looking southwest. Ford Island is at its center.
Route followed by the Japanese fleet to Pearl Harbor and back
An Imperial Japanese Navy Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter on the aircraft carrier Akagi
The Japanese attacked in two waves. The first wave was detected by United States Army radar at 136 nmi, but was misidentified as United States Army Air Forces bombers arriving from the American mainland.
Top: A: Ford Island NAS. B: Hickam Field. C: Bellows Field. D: Wheeler Field. E: Kaneohe NAS. F: Ewa MCAS. R-1: Opana Radar Station. R-2: Kawailoa RS. R-3: Kaaawa RS. G: Kahuku. H: Haleiwa. I: Wahiawa. J: Kaneohe. K: Honolulu. 0: B-17s from mainland. 1: First strike group. 1-1: Level bombers. 1–2: Torpedo bombers. 1–3: Dive bombers. 2: Second strike group. 2-1: Level bombers. 2-1F: Fighters. 2-2: Dive bombers.
Bottom: A: Wake Island. B: Midway Islands. C: Johnston Island. D: Hawaii. D-1: Oahu. 1: USS Lexington (CV-2). 2: USS Enterprise (CV-6). 3: First Air Fleet.
Attacked targets: 1: USS California (BB-44). 2: USS Maryland (BB-46). 3: USS Oklahoma (BB-37). 4: USS Tennessee (BB-43). 5: USS West Virginia (BB-48). 6: USS Arizona (BB-39). 7: USS Nevada (BB-36). 8: USS Pennsylvania (BB-38). 9: Ford Island NAS. 10: Hickam field.
Ignored infrastructure targets: A: Oil storage tanks. B: CINCPAC headquarters building. C: Submarine base. D: Navy Yard.
This message denotes the first U.S. ship, USS St. Louis (CL-49) to clear Pearl Harbor. (National Archives and Records Administration) (Note that this is in answer to question "Is channel clear?" and faint writing at bottom concerning the answer being held until St. Louis had successfully cleared.)
Captain Homer N. Wallin (center) supervises salvage operations aboard USS California (BB-44), early 1942
USS Pennsylvania (BB-38), behind the wreckage of Downes and Cassin
Remember December 7!, by Allen Saalburg, poster issued in 1942 by the United States Office of War Information
Petty Officer Shigenori Nishikaichi's aircraft ten days after it crashed
Arizona Memorial

Japan intended the attack as a preventive action.

Japanese version of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, April 17, 1895.

Treaty of Shimonoseki

Japanese version of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, April 17, 1895.
Independence Gate (front), Seoul, South Korea A symbol of the end of Korea's tributary relationship with the Qing Empire
The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed
Shunpanrō interior
Signing of Treaty of Shimonoseki
Convention of retrocession of the Liaotung peninsula, 8 November 1895
The Shunpanrō in 2004

The Treaty of Shimonoseki (下関条約), also known as Treaty of Maguan in China and Treaty of Bakan (馬關條約) in the period before and during WWII in Japan, was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel (春帆樓), Shimonoseki, Japan on April 17, 1895, between the Empire of Japan and Qing China, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.

The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. Behind them stand, from the left, Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, Fleet Admiral Ernest King, Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, General of the Army George Marshall, Major General Laurence S. Kuter, General Aleksei Antonov, Vice Admiral Stepan Kucherov, and Admiral of the Fleet Nikolay Kuznetsov.

Yalta Conference

The World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union to discuss the postwar reorganization of Germany and Europe.

The World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union to discuss the postwar reorganization of Germany and Europe.

The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. Behind them stand, from the left, Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, Fleet Admiral Ernest King, Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, General of the Army George Marshall, Major General Laurence S. Kuter, General Aleksei Antonov, Vice Admiral Stepan Kucherov, and Admiral of the Fleet Nikolay Kuznetsov.
Soviet, American and British diplomats during the Yalta conference
Yalta American Delegation in Livadia Palace from left to right: Secretary of State Edward Stettinius, Maj. Gen. L. S. Kuter, Admiral E. J. King, General George C. Marshall, Ambassador Averell Harriman, Admiral William Leahy, and President F. D. Roosevelt. Livadia Palace, Crimea, RSFSR
A Big Three meeting room
Leaders of the Big Three at the negotiating table at the Yalta conference
Allied-occupied territories (red) on 15 February 1945, four days after the end of the conference
Poland's old and new borders, 1945 – Kresy in light red
The eventual partition of Germany into Allied Occupation Zones: {{legend|#69AB69|British zone}} {{legend|#2464D8|French zone (two exclaves) and beginning in 1947, the Saar protectorate}} {{legend|#FCA93E|American zone, including Bremen}} {{legend|#FF5555|Soviet zone, later the GDR}} {{legend|#FFFFCF|Polish and Soviet annexed territory}}
Partition plan from Winston Churchill: {{legend|#C9A091|North German state}} {{legend|#9195C9|South German state, including modern Austria and Hungary}} {{legend|#92C991|West German state}}
Morgenthau Plan: {{legend|#FF6464|North German state}} {{legend|#6464FF|South German state}} {{legend|#64ff64|International zone}} {{legend|#C8C8C8|Territory lost from Germany (Saarland to France, Upper Silesia to Poland, East Prussia, partitioned between Poland and the Soviet Union)}}
From left to right: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. Also present are Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov (far left); Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Andrew Cunningham, RN, Marshal of the RAF Sir Charles Portal, RAF, (standing behind Churchill); General George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff of the United States Army, and Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, USN, (standing behind Roosevelt)

Roosevelt wanted Soviet support in the Pacific War against Japan, specifically for the planned invasion of Japan (Operation August Storm), as well as Soviet participation in the United Nations.

Yamagata Aritomo

Senior-ranking Japanese military commander, twice-elected Prime Minister of Japan, and a leading member of the genrō, an élite group of senior statesmen who dominated Japan after the Meiji Restoration.

Senior-ranking Japanese military commander, twice-elected Prime Minister of Japan, and a leading member of the genrō, an élite group of senior statesmen who dominated Japan after the Meiji Restoration.

Yamagata in his early years
Field Marshal Yamagata (c.1898).
Yamagata during his years as Prime Minister
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister of Japan. He was Yamagata's protégé and close ally.
Prince Yamagata Aritomo in his later years.

As the Imperial Japanese Army's inaugural Chief of Staff, he was the chief architect of the Empire of Japan's military and its reactionary ideology.

Japanese infantrymen near wrecked USSR armored vehicles, July 1939

Battles of Khalkhin Gol

Japanese infantrymen near wrecked USSR armored vehicles, July 1939
Mongolian cavalry in the Khalkhin Gol (1939)
Mongolian troops fight against a Japanese counterattack on the western beach of the river Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Japanese soldiers cross the Khalkhin Gol
Destroyed Soviet BA-10 armored car
A destroyed Soviet biplane fighter (presumably an I-15 or an I-153)
Japanese soldiers cheering alongside captured Soviet AFVs
Japanese soldiers posing for a photo with captured Soviet equipment
Crew of a BT-5 cavalry tank surrendering to the Japanese
The commander of the 149th Rifle Regiment before the offensive
Japanese pilots pictured on a Toyota KC starter truck
BT-7 Tanks in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol
Captured Japanese soldiers
Captured Japanese Type 95 scout car
Japanese tank Type 95 Ha-Go captured by Soviet troops after battle of Khalkhin Gol
Captured Japanese guns
Nakajima Ki-27b of Kenji Shimada, commander of the 1st Chutai of the 11th Sentai, battle of Khalkhin Gol, June 1939
Grigori Shtern, Khorloogiin Choibalsan and Georgy Zhukov at Khalkhin Gol
North Strike Group plans
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj standing in front of a statue of Zhukov at a ceremony in Ulaanbaatar in August 2009, commemorating the 70th anniversary of the battle
Troops of the Mongolian Armed Forces during the 80th anniversary parade in 2019

The Battles of Khalkhin Gol (Бои на Халхин-Голе; Халхын голын байлдаан) were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts involving the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.