A report on Empire of Japan

The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
National Diet Building, 1930
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

Historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan.

- Empire of Japan

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A 150-pound Satsuma cannon, built in 1849. It was mounted on Fort Tenpozan at Kagoshima. Caliber: 290mm, length: 4220mm

Bakumatsu

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The final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate ended.

The final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate ended.

A 150-pound Satsuma cannon, built in 1849. It was mounted on Fort Tenpozan at Kagoshima. Caliber: 290mm, length: 4220mm
Commodore Matthew C. Perry
Townsend Harris negotiated the "Treaty of Amity and Commerce" in 1858, opening Japan to foreign influence and trade, under unequal conditions.
Tokugawa Nariaki
Yamaoka Tesshū, a famous samurai of the Bakumatsu period. He was later appointed as the chief of the Seieitai, an elite bodyguard for the 15th Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu.
A colored Photochrom print version of a panorama of Edo (now Tokyo) showing daimyo residences. Following the end of the Shogunate in 1867, the daimyo residences in Edo (now Tokyo) were razed so that government, commercial and industrial buildings could be built in their place. The location from which the photographs were taken corresponds to Atago Shrine in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
The secret Imperial Order to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate (1867)
Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the last shōgun, c. 1867
Ebara Soroku, a samurai of the late Edo period who went on to become an educator and politician. He assisted in establishing the Numazu Military Academy after Boshin War.
The Royal Navy frigate HMS Phaeton demanded supplies while in Nagasaki harbour in 1808.
The American merchant ship Morrison of Charles W. King was repelled from Edo Bay in 1837.
Russians meeting Japanese in 1779.
{{transl|ja|Shōhei Maru}}
{{transl|ja|Asahi Maru}}
Odaiba battery at the entrance of Tokyo, built in 1853–54 to prevent an American intrusion.
Coastal wooden cannon built by the {{transl|ja|daimyō}} at the order of the {{transl|ja|bakufu}} for Commodore Perry's arrival.
{{nihongo|Nirayama|韮山}} reverberatory furnace in Izunokuni, Shizuoka built by Egawa Hidetatsu. Construction began in November 1853 and was completed in 1857; it operated until 1864.{{efn|A Dutch book entitled The Casting Processes at the National Iron Cannon Foundry in Luik ({{lang|nl|Het Gietwezen ins Rijks Iizer-Geschutgieterij, to Luik}}) written in 1826 by Huguenin Ulrich (1755–1833) was used as a reference to build the furnace. }}
One of the cannons of Odaiba, now at the Yasukuni Shrine. 80-pound bronze, bore: 250mm, length: 3830mm
thumb|upright|Marquess Kuroda Nagahiro of Fukuoka. Nagahiro (like his close relative, Shimazu Nariakira) was a serious proponent of technological modernization after Commodore Perry's arrival. He greatly encouraged learning amongst his retainers, and sent them to the best schools of Edo, Osaka, and Nagasaki to absorb the Western knowledge and technical expertise which was entering the country at the time.
The {{transl|ja|Kanrin Maru}}, Japan's first screw-driven steam warship, 1855.
The Nagasaki Naval Training Center, in Nagasaki, near Dejima.
The wreckage of Diana following the 1854 Ansei-Tōkai earthquake and tsunami, Illustrated London News, 1856.
View of Yokohama in 1859.
Foreign ships in Yokohama harbor.
A foreign trading house in Yokohama in 1861.
Allegory of inflation and soaring prices during the Bakumatsu era.
Attack on the British legation in Edo, July 1861.
Assassination of Tairō Ii Naosuke in the Sakuradamon incident (1860).
The members of the First Japanese Embassy to Europe (1862) visiting the 1862 International Exhibition in London, from the Illustrated London News.
An 1861 image expressing the Jōi ({{lang|ja|攘夷}}, "Expel the Barbarians") sentiment.
Japanese cannons shooting on Foreign shipping at Shimonoseki in 1863.
The USS Wyoming battling in the Shimonoseki Straits against the Choshu steam warships Daniel Webster (six guns), the brig Lanrick (Kosei, with ten guns), and the steamer Lancefield (Koshin, of four guns).
USS Wyoming sinking the Choshu steamer Lancefield.
Birds-eye view of the bombardment of Kagoshima by the Royal Navy, August 15, 1863. Le Monde Illustré.
Initial settlement between the Bakufu and the British.
The Bombardment of Shimonoseki, 1863–1864.
The French engagement at Shimonoseki, with the warships Tancrède and Semiramis, under Rear-Admiral Charles Jaurès. Le Monde illustré, October 10, 1863.
French Navy troops taking possession of Japanese cannons at Shimonoseki.
Guns of the Boshin War from top to bottom: a Snider, a Starr, a Gewehr.
Shogunal troops in 1864, Illustrated London News.

Between 1853 and 1867, Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy known as sakoku and changed from a feudal Tokugawa shogunate to the modern empire of the Meiji government.

Formal portrait, 1912

Emperor Taishō

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Formal portrait, 1912
Crown Prince Tōgu with his father and mother strolling in Asukayama Park accompanied by ladies of the court. Colour woodblock print by Yōshū Chikanobu, 1890
Emperor Taishō's four sons in 1921: Hirohito, Takahito, Nobuhito and Yasuhito
Emperor Taishō on his way to the opening ceremony of the Imperial Diet in 1917, during World War I
Funeral of Emperor Taisho in Tokyo
Emperor Taishō in the robes of the Order of the Garter

Emperor Taishō (大正天皇) was the 123rd Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, and the second ruler of the Empire of Japan from 30 July 1912 until his death in 1926.

Satsuma Domain

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Domain (han) of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan during the Edo period from 1602 to 1871.

Domain (han) of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan during the Edo period from 1602 to 1871.

Maximum extent of Satsuma Domain during the Sengoku period, 1586
Maximum extent of Satsuma Domain during the Sengoku period, 1586
Map of Japan, 1789—the Han system affected cartography
Maximum extent of Satsuma Domain during the Sengoku period, 1586
Maximum extent of Satsuma Domain during the Sengoku period, 1586
A 150-pound Satsuma cannon, cast in 1849. It was mounted on Fort Tenpozan at Kagoshima. Caliber: 290 mm, length: 4220 mm
Map showing southern Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands, 1781
A daguerreotype of Shimazu Nariakira
Saigō Takamori
Pavilion of the "Government of Satsuma" at the Exposition Universelle in 1867 in Paris
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The Satsuma Domain formed the Satchō Alliance with the rival Chōshū Domain during the Meiji Restoration and became instrumental in the establishment of the Empire of Japan.

German Empire

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The period of the German Reich from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the November Revolution in 1918, when the German Reich changed its form of government from a monarchy to a republic.

The period of the German Reich from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the November Revolution in 1918, when the German Reich changed its form of government from a monarchy to a republic.

Chancellor Bismarck, the statesman who unified Germany with skillful political moves
Wilhelm I in 1884
Die Proklamation des Deutschen Kaiserreiches by Anton von Werner (1877), depicting the proclamation of Emperor William I (18 January 1871, Palace of Versailles). From left, on the podium (in black): Crown Prince Frederick (later Frederick III), his father the emperor, and Frederick I of Baden, proposing a toast to the new emperor. At centre (in white): Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, Prussian Chief of Staff.
A postage stamp from the Caroline Islands
German colonies and protectorates in 1914
The Krupp works in Essen, 1890
Tensions between Germany and the Catholic Church hierarchy as depicted in a chess game between Bismarck and Pope Pius IX. Between Berlin and Rome, Kladderadatsch, 1875
Prussian deportations of ethnic Poles (Polenausweisungen), 1909 painting by Wojciech Kossak
Crime; convicts in relation to the population, 1882–1886
Frederick III, emperor for only 99 days (9 March – 15 June 1888)
Wilhelm II in 1902
The Reichstag in the 1890s / early 1900s
Berlin in the late 19th century
Bismarck at the Berlin Conference, 1884
Flag of the German colonial empire
Hoisting of the German flag at Mioko, German New Guinea in 1884
Map of the world showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Entente's side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey.
German troops being mobilized, 1914
German Army positions, 1914
The Eastern Front at the time of the cease-fire and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
A war memorial in Berlin
Coats of arms and flags of the constituent states in 1900
Percentage of linguistic minorities of the German Empire in 1900 by Kreis
Emperor Wilhelm II, who was the Supreme Governor of the Evangelical Church of Prussia's older Provinces, and Empress Augusta Victoria after the inauguration of the Evangelical Church of the Redeemer in Jerusalem (Reformation Day, 31 October 1898)
War flag of the German Empire. In 1956, the Iron Cross was re-introduced as the symbol of the Bundeswehr, the modern German armed forces.
German territories lost in both World Wars are shown in black, while present-day Germany is marked dark grey on this 1914 map.
Different legal systems in Germany prior to 1900
Fields of law in the German Empire
Administrative map
Population density ({{circa|1885}})
Election constituencies for the Reichstag
Detailed map in 1893 with cities and larger towns
Danish
Dutch
Frisian
Polish
Czech (and Moravian)
Masurian
Kashubian
Sorbian
French
Walloon
Italian
Lithuanian
non-German
Distribution of Protestants and Catholics in Imperial Germany
Distribution of Protestants, Catholics and Jews in Imperial Germany (Meyers Konversationslexikon)
Distribution of Jews in Imperial Germany
Greater Imperial coat of arms of Germany
Middle Imperial coat of arms of Germany
Lesser Imperial coat of arms of Germany
The German Empire during World War I, shortly before its collapse:
Home Territory (1871–1919)
Client states (1917–1919)
Occupied territory (1914–1919)

Some key elements of the German Empire's authoritarian political structure were also the basis for conservative modernization in Imperial Japan under Meiji and the preservation of an authoritarian political structure under the tsars in the Russian Empire.

Karafuto Prefecture

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Green: Karafuto Prefecture within Japan in 1942
Light green: Other constituents of the Empire of Japan
Map of Sakhalin with parallels showing the division at the 50th parallel north with the Karafuto Prefecture highlighted in red
Green: Karafuto Prefecture within Japan in 1942
Light green: Other constituents of the Empire of Japan
The Karafuto Prefectural Office in Toyohara
A Japanese soldier at the border between the Karafuto Prefecture and Soviet Sakhalin
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive stands outside the present day Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station, Sakhalin Oblast, Russia. They were used by the Soviet Railways until 1979.
Karafuto Prefecture with 4 subprefectures, namely Toyohara, Maoka, Esutoru and Shikuka . Toyohara City was also a part of Toyohara Subprefecture.

Karafuto Prefecture (樺太廳, Karafuto-chō; Префектура Карафуто), commonly known as South Sakhalin, was a prefecture of Japan located in Sakhalin from 1907 to 1949.

Korean Empire

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Korean monarchical state proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty.

Korean monarchical state proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty.

Territory of the Korean Empire 1903–1905. The disputed Gando region is shaded in lighter green.
Seal of the Korean Empire
Territory of the Korean Empire 1903–1905. The disputed Gando region is shaded in lighter green.
National seal
Coat of arms
Part of the old Russian legation building in Seoul. In 1896, King Gojong and his crown prince took refuge from the Gyeongbok Palace at the Russian legation in Seoul.
In 1900, Western attire became the official uniform for the Korean civil officials. Several years later, all Korean policemen were assigned to wear modernized uniforms.
Yi Yong-ik, Chief of the Bureau of Currency during the Korean Empire
A streetcar in Seoul, 1903
The headquarters office building of the Hanseong Electric Company
Japanese infantry marching through Seoul during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904
Yi Beom-jin, an official, later independence fighter against the Japanese. He supported secret emissaries sent by Gojong to The Hague in 1907.
Gwangmu Emperor sent three secret emissaries, Yi Tjoune, Yi Sang-seol and Yi Wi-jong, to The Hague, Netherlands in 1907.(Hague Secret Emissary Affair)
Hwangudan in c. 1906.
alt=|Replica of the Stamp of Gojong used after he became an emperor
First Naval Ship of Korean Empire, KIS Yangmu
State funeral of Min Young-hwan who committed suicide for protest against the treaty

The empire stood until Japan's annexation of Korea in August 1910.

Marunouchi Headquarters for the Mitsubishi zaibatsu, pre-1923

Zaibatsu

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Marunouchi Headquarters for the Mitsubishi zaibatsu, pre-1923
Seizure of the zaibatsu families assets, 1946

Zaibatsu (財閥) is a Japanese term referring to industrial and financial vertically integrated business conglomerates in the Empire of Japan, whose influence and size allowed control over significant parts of the Japanese economy from the Meiji period until the end of World War II.

Emperor Shōwa (1928)

Shōwa (1926–1989)

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The Shōwa era (昭和) refers to the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) from December 25, 1926, until his death on January 7, 1989.

The Shōwa era (昭和) refers to the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) from December 25, 1926, until his death on January 7, 1989.

Emperor Shōwa (1928)
The National Diet Building, where both houses of the National Diet of Japan meet, was completed in early Shōwa era (1936).
Maximum extent of the Japanese colonial empire
Japanese Emperor Hirohito as head of the Imperial General Headquarters on 29 April 1943
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Hideki Tōjō (right) and Nobusuke Kishi, October 1943
Japanese Emperor Hirohito and U.S. President Ronald Reagan

The pre-1945 and post-war Shōwa periods are almost-completely different states: the pre-1945 Shōwa era (1926–1945) concerns the Empire of Japan, and post-1945 Shōwa era (1945–1989) is the State of Japan.

Puyi

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The last emperor of China as the eleventh and final Qing dynasty monarch.

The last emperor of China as the eleventh and final Qing dynasty monarch.

Painting portrait of Puyi, 1908
Silver coin: 1 yuan/dollar Xuantong 3rd year - 1911 Chopmark
Titular emperor Puyi in the Forbidden City
Gobulo Wanrong, Puyi's wife and Empress of China
Secondary consort Wenxiu
A photo taken of Puyi's bedroom in the Forbidden City shortly after being expelled
Puyi in the Garden of Serenity (靜園), as it looked in the late 1920s and early 1930s
Puyi, pictured with Wanrong
Puyi wearing the Mǎnzhōuguó uniform.
Puyi and Wanrong leaving their hotel on March 8 of 1932 before travelling to the official Manchukuo founding ceremony in Changchun
Manchukuo Enthronement Commemorative Medal
Puyi (right) as Emperor of Manchukuo. On the left is Chū Kudō.
Tan Yuling, Puyi's concubine
The site of Puyi's abdication in a small mining office complex in Dalizi
Puyi (right) and a Soviet military officer
Puyi's letters to Joseph Stalin
Fushun War Criminals Prison
Puyi in 1961, flanked by Xiong Bingkun, a commander in the Wuchang Uprising, and Lu Zhonglin, who took part in Puyi's expulsion from the Forbidden City in 1924.
In the spring of 1967, Pujie and Saga Hiro visited Puyi, who was by then seriously ill.
Puyi's tutor, Sir Reginald Johnston
Emperor Puyi shakes hands with Emperor Hirohito at Tokyo Station on 26 June 1940

He was later installed as the Emperor Kangde (康德) of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo during World War II.

Allied island-hopping campaign 1943–1945: 
 Blue – Japanese-held territory Aug. 1945 
 Dark red – Allied territory 
  Red – Occupied Nov. 1943 
  Dark pink – Occupied Apr. 1944 
  Pink – Occupied Oct. 1944 
  Light pink – Occupied Aug. 1945

Leapfrogging (strategy)

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Allied island-hopping campaign 1943–1945: 
 Blue – Japanese-held territory Aug. 1945 
 Dark red – Allied territory 
  Red – Occupied Nov. 1943 
  Dark pink – Occupied Apr. 1944 
  Pink – Occupied Oct. 1944 
  Light pink – Occupied Aug. 1945

Leapfrogging, also known as island hopping, was a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against the Empire of Japan during World War II.