A report on Empire of Japan

The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
National Diet Building, 1930
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

Historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan.

- Empire of Japan

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Taiwan under Japanese rule

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Taiwan (dark red) within the Empire of Japan (light red) at its furthest extent
Painting of Japanese soldiers entering the city of Taipeh (Taipei) in 1895 after the Treaty of Shimonoseki
Taiwan (dark red) within the Empire of Japan (light red) at its furthest extent
A 1911 map of Japan, including Taiwan
General Viscount Kodama Gentarō, 4th Governor-General of Taiwan
Gotō Shimpei, Chief of Home Affairs, 1896–1918; in the dress of Chief Scout of the Boy Scouts of Japan, c. 1924
Taiwan Grand Shrine, a Shinto shrine constructed in Taihoku in 1901
Sha Kaiseki (謝 介石, Xie Jishi), Manchukuo Foreign Minister
Ko Ken'ei, member of the House of Peers
Crown Prince Hirohito visited Taiwan in 1923. The photo was taken in front of Takao Station.
Governor-General's Office in 1930s (illustrated by Ishikawa Kin'ichiro)
A group of foreign students from Mainland China who lived in Taiwan in 1921 visited Taiwan Governor Museum
Takasago Volunteers
Allied bombing of the Byōritsu oil refinery on Formosa, May 25, 1945
High school girls standing in front of the Governor-General's Office in 1937
Dot distribution map of 320,000 Japanese overseas in Taiwan in 1945
Government building of Tainan Prefecture
The flag of the Republic of Formosa, 1895
Insurgents captured during the Seirai Temple Incident, 1915
Seirai-an Temple (Tainan)
Poster for the 1935 Taiwan Exposition
Arisan Forest Railway (阿里山森林鉄路, Arisan Shinrin Tetsuro) during the Japanese period
Taiwan Tea House at Panama Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, U.S.A
Nichigetsu Lake before the power plant was built (taken in 1900)
Bank of Taiwan established in 1897 and headquartered in Taihoku
Ōsaka Neutral Bank in Taihoku (ca. 1910)
Taihoku Imperial University
Prince Hirohito (later Emperor Showa) visited No. 1 Middle School of Tainan (currently National Tainan Second Senior High School). It was a junior high school for Japanese. Taiwanese students were separated to another separated junior high school.
An elementary school during the Japanese period
Taichū Station, constructed in 1917
The Railway Department Office (1920s)
The old Tetsuma-in (now Puji Temple in Beitou, Taipei), constructed during Japanese rule
A Taiwanese woman (1900)
The ceremonial dresses and student dresses of Taiwanese people during Japanese period
After the urban redevelopment, the old streets became boulevards of phoenix flower trees which were more spacious for cars, combined with a neater city appearance (Taishō-dōro Boulevard in Tainan, today Zhongshan Road)
Students of a school for Taiwanese indigenous people (around 1926)
The modern remains of Ōgon Shrine (黄金神社), a Shinto shrine located in Jinguashi, New Taipei
The later President of Taiwan Lee Teng-hui (right) with his brother during the war as a conscript in Japanese uniforms. Lee's brother died as a Japanese soldier in the Philippines.
Rai Wa, father of the new literature in Taiwan
Outside of Kagi Street/ Tan Ting-pho/ 1926/ Painting on canvas/ 64x53cm/ Selected as part of the 7th Imperial Japanese Exhibition
"Sayon's Bell" (サヨンの鐘, Sayon no Kane), a Japanese movie produced in Taiwan during this period
Ō Unpō's album cover
Puppet theatre, an important cultural entertainment during Japanese rule
Kanō Baseball Team of Taiwan won 2nd place at the Japanese High School Baseball Championship, commonly known as Summer Kōshien, in 1931
Chen Yi (right) accepting the receipt of Order No. 1 signed by Rikichi Andō (left), the last Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan, in Taihoku City Hall
Taihoku City Public Auditorium

The island of Taiwan, together with the Penghu Islands, became a dependency of Japan in 1895, when the Qing dynasty ceded Taiwan Prefecture in the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the Japanese victory in the First Sino-Japanese War.

Members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere; territory controlled at maximum height. Japan and its allies Thailand and Azad Hind (puppet) in dark red; occupied territories/client states in lighter red. Korea, Taiwan, and Karafuto (South Sakhalin) were integral parts of Japan.

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

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Members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere; territory controlled at maximum height. Japan and its allies Thailand and Azad Hind (puppet) in dark red; occupied territories/client states in lighter red. Korea, Taiwan, and Karafuto (South Sakhalin) were integral parts of Japan.
1935 propaganda poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Chinese, and Manchu. The caption, written from right to left, says: "With the help of Japan, China, and Manchukuo, the world can be in peace." The flags shown are, right to left: the "Five Races Under One Union" flag of China; the flag of Japan; the flag of Manchukuo.
Member states of the Greater East Asia Conference : Japan and colonies : Thailand and Other territories occupied by Japan : Territories disputed and claimed by Japan
The Greater East Asia Conference in November 1943, participants left to right: Ba Maw, Zhang Jinghui, Wang Jingwei, Hideki Tojo, Wan Waithayakon, José P. Laurel, and Subhas Chandra Bose
Fragment of Japanese propaganda booklet published by the Tokyo Conference (1943), depicting scenes of situations in Greater East Asia, from top, left to right: Japanese occupation of Malaya, Thailand under Plaek Phibunsongkram gained the territories of Saharat Thai Doem, Republic of China (Nanjing) under Wang Jingwei allied with Japan, Subhas Chandra Bose formed the Provisional Government of Free India, State of Burma gained independence under Ba Maw, Declaration of the Second Philippine Republic, People of Manchukuo.
The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere at its greatest extent
A Japanese 10 sen stamp from 1942 depicting the approximate extension of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
German and Japanese direct spheres of influence at their greatest extents in fall 1942. Arrows show planned movements to the proposed demarcation line at 70° E, which was, however, never even approximated.

The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (大東亜共栄圏), also known as the GEACPS, was a concept that was developed in the Empire of Japan and propagated to Asian populations which were occupied by it from 1931 to 1945, and which officially aimed at creating a self-sufficient bloc of Asian nations that would be led by the Japanese and be free from the rule of Western powers.

Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910

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The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, also known as the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty, was made by representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire on 22 August 1910.

The treaty on display

Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876

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The treaty on display
The Japanese gunboat Un'yō
The Imperial Japanese Navy, in Pusan, on its way to Ganghwa Island, Korea, January 16th, 1876. There were 2 warships (Nisshin, Moshun), 3 troop transports, and one liner for the embassy led by Kuroda Kiyotaka.
Four Gatling guns set up in Ganghwa by Japanese troops, 1876 Kuroda mission

The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876 (also known as the Japan-Korea Treaty of Amity in Japan and the Treaty of Ganghwa Island in Korea) was made between representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Kingdom of Joseon in 1876.

Seoul

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Capital and largest metropolis of South Korea.

Capital and largest metropolis of South Korea.

"Seoul" in hangul
The Fortress Wall of Seoul
The Han River at sunrise
According to the Environmental Performance Index 2016, South Korea ranked 173rd out of 180 countries in terms of air quality. More than 50 percent of the populations in South Korea are exposed to dangerous levels of fine dust.
Seoul City Hall
Districts of Seoul
Gangnam Commercial Area
Yeouido, the main financial district of Seoul.
Myeong-dong is one of the most popular destinations in Seoul.
Bukchon Hanok Village, a traditional Seoul village built during the Joseon era
Sungnyemun (commonly known as Namdaemun)
Lotte World Tower
The National Museum of Korea
The War Memorial of Korea
Myeongdong Cathedral
Seoul Botanic Park
Han River Park
KBS headquarters in Yeouido, Seoul
Seoul Olympic Stadium
Fireworks at the closing ceremonies of the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul
Seoul buses
Seoul Station
KTX Sancheon
Entrance of Seoul National University
Gyeongbokgung, the main royal palace during Joseon Dynasty.
Changdeok Palace, one of the five royal palaces during Joseon Dynasty.

After the annexation treaty in 1910, Japan annexed Korea and renamed the city Gyeongseong ("Kyongsong" in Korean and "Keijo" in Japanese).

The treaty on display

Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905

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The treaty on display
Jungmyeongjeon Hall, where the treaty was signed
Gojong's analysis of the "treaty of 1905"
Letter written by Gojong sent to Wilhelm II of Germany.

The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905, also known as the Eulsa Treaty, Eulsa Unwilling Treaty or Japan–Korea Protectorate Treaty, was made between the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire in 1905.

Allies of World War I

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Major European diplomatic alignments shortly before the war
1914 Russian poster depicting the Triple Entente
The Council of Four (from left to right): David Lloyd George, Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson in Versailles, 1919
The British Empire in 1914
HMS Dreadnought; the 1902, 1904 and 1907 agreements with Japan, France and Russia allowed Britain to refocus resources during the Anglo-German naval arms race.
Canadian Army recruitment poster
Indian soldiers of the 2nd Rajput Light Infantry on the Western Front, winter of 1914–15
Russian troops marching to the front
Russian recruiting poster; the caption reads 'World on fire; Second Patriotic War'
French bayonet charge, 1914; huge casualties in the early months of the war had to be replaced by French colonial troops.
French Zouaves of the Army of Africa
French artillery in action near Gallipoli, 1915
The Japanese carrier Wakamiya conducted the first ship-launched aerial attack in 1914.
Antonio Salandra, Italian PM March 1914 - June 1916
Alpini troops marching in the snow at 3,000 m altitude, 1917
The Serbian Army in retreat, 1915
The Yser Front, 1917 by Belgian artist Georges-Émile Lebacq
Belgian Congolese Force Publique troops in German East Africa, 1916
Eleftherios Venizelos with Constantine during the Balkan Wars
A unit of the National Defence Army Corps on its way to the front in 1918
Colonel Christodoulou of the National Defence Army Corps interrogates Bulgarian prisoners, September 1918
Nicholas accepts the surrender of Scutari, April 1913; Montenegro's major gain from the Balkan War, it was relinquished several months later.
Montenegrin soldiers leaving for the front, October 1914
Romanian 250 mm Negrei Model 1916 mortar at the National Military Museum
Vlaicu III
Romanian troops at Mărășești
Brazilian soldiers in World War I
Military leaders of World War I: Alphonse Jacques de Dixmude (Belgium), Armando Diaz (Italy), Ferdinand Foch (France), John J. Pershing (United States), and David Beatty (United Kingdom)
Marshal Foch's Victory-Harmony Banner
Russian High Command
President Raymond Poincaré and King George V, 1915
First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill, 1914
Douglas Haig and Ferdinand Foch inspecting the Gordon Highlanders, 1918
Greek war poster
USAAS recruiting poster, 1918
The use of naval convoys to transport US troops to France, 1917
Braziliian ship Cruzador Bahia
The Siamese Expeditionary Forces in Paris, 1919
A pie-chart showing the military deaths of the Allied Powers

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were a coalition of countries led by France, the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, and their colonies during the First World War (1914–1918).

Boxer Rebellion and Eight-Nation Alliance, China 1900–1901

Boxer Rebellion

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Anti-foreign, anti-colonial, and anti-Christian uprising in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the Qing dynasty, by the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, known as the "Boxers" in English because many of its members had practised Chinese martial arts, which at the time were referred to as "Chinese boxing".

Anti-foreign, anti-colonial, and anti-Christian uprising in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the Qing dynasty, by the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, known as the "Boxers" in English because many of its members had practised Chinese martial arts, which at the time were referred to as "Chinese boxing".

Boxer Rebellion and Eight-Nation Alliance, China 1900–1901
Boxer with spear and sword
(Wax Model by George S. Stuart)
A French political propaganda cartoon depicting China as a pie about to be carved up by Queen Victoria (Britain), Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany), Tsar Nicholas II (Russia), Marianne (France) and a samurai (Japan), while Boxer leader Dong Fuxiang protests.
Chinese Muslim troops from Gansu, also known as the Gansu Braves, killed a Japanese diplomat on 11 June 1900. Foreigners called them the "10,000 Islamic rabble."
Japanese marines who served in the Seymour Expedition
Admiral Seymour returning to Tianjin with his wounded men on 26 June
Italian mounted infantry near Tientsin in 1900
Qing imperial soldiers during the Boxer Rebellion
Locations of foreign diplomatic legations and front lines in Beijing during the siege
Capture of the Forts at Taku [Dagu], by Fritz Neumann
Representative U.S., Indian, French, Italian, British, German, Austro-Hungarian and Japanese military and naval personnel in the Allied forces
1900, soldiers burned down the Temple, Shanhaiguan. The destruction of a Chinese temple on the bank of the Pei-Ho, by Amédée Forestier
Han Chinese general Nie Shicheng, who fought both the Boxers and the Allies
Boxer soldiers
Han Chinese general Dong Fuxiang whose Moslem "Gansu Braves" besieged the Legations.
The Boxers bombarded Tianjin in June 1900, and Dong Fuxiang's Muslim troops attacked the British Admiral Seymour and his expeditionary force.
The capture of the southern gate of Tianjin. British troops were positioned on the left, Japanese troops at the centre, French troops on the right.
Chinese troops wearing modern uniforms in 1900
Indian troops at the Temple of Heaven. They were the first to enter the Legation Quarter.
Japanese woodblock print depicting troops of the Eight-Nation Alliance.
Russian officers in Manchuria during the Boxer Rebellion
The Holy Chinese Martyrs of the Eastern Orthodox Church as depicted in an icon commissioned in 1990
The Russian empire occupied Manchuria while the Eight Nation Alliance jointly occupied Zhili province. The rest of China outside of Manchuria and Zhili were unaffected due to the governor generals who participated in the Mutual Protection of Southeast China in 1900.
French troops execute a Boxer
Execution of Boxers by standing strangulation
American troops during the Boxer Rebellion
French 1901 China expedition commemorative medal. Musée de la Légion d'Honneur.
Foreign armies assemble inside the Forbidden City after capturing Beijing, 28 November 1900
"Boxers" captured by the U.S. 6th Cavalry near Tianjin in 1901. Historians believed they were merely bystanders.
Qing forces of Chinese soldiers in 1899–1901.
Left: two infantrymen of the New Imperial Army. Front: drum major of the regular army. Seated on the trunk: field artilleryman. Right: Boxers.
A Boxer during the revolt
U.S. Marines fight rebellious Boxers outside Beijing Legation Quarter, 1900. Copy of painting by Sergeant John Clymer.
British and Japanese forces engage Boxers in battle.

Several international forces were sent to the capital, with varying success, and the Chinese forces were ultimately defeated by the Eight-Nation Alliance of Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Great powers are recognized in an international structure such as the United Nations Security Council.

Great power

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Sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

Sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

Great powers are recognized in an international structure such as the United Nations Security Council.
German historian Leopold von Ranke in the mid-19th century attempted to scientifically document the great powers.
The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819
The "Big Four" at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919: David Lloyd George, Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson
The "Big Three" of Europe at the Yalta Conference: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
The Allied leaders of the Asian and Pacific Theatre: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill meeting at the Cairo Conference in 1943

These countries seeking to attain great power status were: Italy after the Risorgimento era, Japan during the Meiji era, and the United States after its civil war.

Japanese foreign affairs minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signs the Japanese Instrument of Surrender aboard the USS Missouri (BB-63) as General Richard K. Sutherland watches, September 2, 1945.

Surrender of Japan

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Announced by Japanese Emperor Hirohito on 15 August and formally signed on 2 September 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.

Announced by Japanese Emperor Hirohito on 15 August and formally signed on 2 September 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.

Japanese foreign affairs minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signs the Japanese Instrument of Surrender aboard the USS Missouri (BB-63) as General Richard K. Sutherland watches, September 2, 1945.
Representatives of the Empire of Japan stand aboard USS Missouri (BB-63) prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender.
Allied landings in the Pacific Theatre of operations, August 1942 to August 1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Suzuki cabinet in June 1945
As prime minister, Admiral Kantarō Suzuki headed the Japanese government in the final months of the war.
Foreign Minister Shigenori Tōgō
Naotake Satō
A session of the Potsdam Conference – those pictured include Clement Attlee, Ernest Bevin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Joseph Stalin, William D. Leahy, James F. Byrnes, and Harry S. Truman
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki
War Minister Korechika Anami
A leaflet dropped on Japan after the bombing of Hiroshima. The leaflet says, in part: The Japanese people are facing an extremely important autumn. Your military leaders were presented with thirteen articles for surrender by our three-country alliance to put an end to this unprofitable war. This proposal was ignored by your army leaders... [T]he United States has developed an atom bomb, which had not been done by any nation before. It has been determined to employ this frightening bomb. One atom bomb has the destructive power of 2000 B-29s.
Kenji Hatanaka, leader of the coup d'état
The coup collapsed after Shizuichi Tanaka convinced the rebellious officers to go home. Tanaka committed suicide nine days later.
Allied personnel celebrate the Japanese surrender in Paris.
Allied battleships in Sagami Bay, August 28, 1945
MacArthur at surrender ceremony. The flag flown by Perry is visible in the background.
Gen. Umezu signed

The formal surrender occurred on 2 September 1945, around 9 a.m., Tokyo time, when representatives from the Empire of Japan signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender in Tokyo Bay aboard USS Missouri.