A report on Empire of Japan

The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
 style = padding-center: 0.6em; text-align: center;
The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
 style = padding-center: 0.6em; text-align: center;
Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
National Diet Building, 1930
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

Historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan.

- Empire of Japan

199 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Photograph of Battleship Row taken from a Japanese plane at the beginning of the attack. The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on USS West Virginia (BB-48). Two attacking Japanese planes can be seen: one over USS Neosho (AO-23) and one over the Naval Yard.

Attack on Pearl Harbor

8 links

Surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, just before 8:00 a.m., on Sunday, December 7, 1941.

Surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, just before 8:00 a.m., on Sunday, December 7, 1941.

Photograph of Battleship Row taken from a Japanese plane at the beginning of the attack. The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on USS West Virginia (BB-48). Two attacking Japanese planes can be seen: one over USS Neosho (AO-23) and one over the Naval Yard.
Photograph of Battleship Row taken from a Japanese plane at the beginning of the attack. The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on USS West Virginia (BB-48). Two attacking Japanese planes can be seen: one over USS Neosho (AO-23) and one over the Naval Yard.
Pearl Harbor on October 30, 1941, looking southwest. Ford Island is at its center.
Route followed by the Japanese fleet to Pearl Harbor and back
An Imperial Japanese Navy Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter on the aircraft carrier Akagi
The Japanese attacked in two waves. The first wave was detected by United States Army radar at 136 nmi, but was misidentified as United States Army Air Forces bombers arriving from the American mainland.
Top: A: Ford Island NAS. B: Hickam Field. C: Bellows Field. D: Wheeler Field. E: Kaneohe NAS. F: Ewa MCAS. R-1: Opana Radar Station. R-2: Kawailoa RS. R-3: Kaaawa RS. G: Kahuku. H: Haleiwa. I: Wahiawa. J: Kaneohe. K: Honolulu. 0: B-17s from mainland. 1: First strike group. 1-1: Level bombers. 1–2: Torpedo bombers. 1–3: Dive bombers. 2: Second strike group. 2-1: Level bombers. 2-1F: Fighters. 2-2: Dive bombers.
Bottom: A: Wake Island. B: Midway Islands. C: Johnston Island. D: Hawaii. D-1: Oahu. 1: USS Lexington (CV-2). 2: USS Enterprise (CV-6). 3: First Air Fleet.
Attacked targets: 1: USS California (BB-44). 2: USS Maryland (BB-46). 3: USS Oklahoma (BB-37). 4: USS Tennessee (BB-43). 5: USS West Virginia (BB-48). 6: USS Arizona (BB-39). 7: USS Nevada (BB-36). 8: USS Pennsylvania (BB-38). 9: Ford Island NAS. 10: Hickam field.
Ignored infrastructure targets: A: Oil storage tanks. B: CINCPAC headquarters building. C: Submarine base. D: Navy Yard.
This message denotes the first U.S. ship, USS St. Louis (CL-49) to clear Pearl Harbor. (National Archives and Records Administration) (Note that this is in answer to question "Is channel clear?" and faint writing at bottom concerning the answer being held until St. Louis had successfully cleared.)
Captain Homer N. Wallin (center) supervises salvage operations aboard USS California (BB-44), early 1942
USS Pennsylvania (BB-38), behind the wreckage of Downes and Cassin
Remember December 7!, by Allen Saalburg, poster issued in 1942 by the United States Office of War Information
Petty Officer Shigenori Nishikaichi's aircraft ten days after it crashed
Arizona Memorial

Japan intended the attack as a preventive action.

Mengjiang

7 links

Demchugdongrub (left)
Foundation ceremony of Mengjiang's government
One-yuan banknote issued by the Bank of Mengjiang, 1940
A 1943 postage stamp of Mengjiang
Mengjiang shrine in Zhangjiakou, Hebei, in the 1950s
Inner Mongolia in 1911
A map of the Mengjiang United Autonomous Government
The Reformed Government's territory in central China from 1937 until 1940 when all three states, Mengjiang, the Provisional Government of the ROC (not to be confused with the 1912 government of the same name and flag) and the Reformed Government of the ROC, merged into the Reorganized National Government of the ROC.
alt=A lecture with a map of Mengjiang|A lecture held in Japan in 1940 discussing Inner Mongolia and Mengjiang, note the map in the background featuring the state
{{FIAV|historical}} Flag of the Mongol Military Government (1936–1937) and the Mongol United Autonomous Government (1937–1939)
{{FIAV|historical}} Flag of the South Chahar Autonomous Government (1937–1939)
{{FIAV|historical}} Flag of the North Shanxi Autonomous Government (1937–1939)

Mengjiang, also known as Mengkiang or the Mongol Border Land, and governed as the Mengjiang United Autonomous Government, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, formed in 1939 as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, then from 1940 being under the nominal sovereignty of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China (which was itself also a puppet state).

1st Lt. Nibu Masatada and his company
on February 26, 1936

February 26 incident

5 links

1st Lt. Nibu Masatada and his company
on February 26, 1936
Sadao Araki, leader of the Kōdō-ha
Flag used by rebel troops during the uprising: "Revere the Emperor, Destroy the Traitors"
Map of initial attacks
Rebels outside the Prime Minister's Residence during the February 26 Incident.
Yasuhide Kurihara leading the Rebellion Army
Korekiyo Takahashi
Rebels occupying Nagata-cho and Akasaka area during the February 26 Incident.
Jōtarō Watanabe's dead body
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
Hanzōmon, February 26, 1936
Rebel occupation of the Sannō Hotel
Martial Law Headquarters
Imperial Japanese Navy Land Force of Yokosuka arriving at Shibaura, Tokyo, following the outbreak of the "February 26 Incident".
Order in Prince Kan'in Kotohito's name transmitting the imperial command to Kōhei Kashii
Occupied area on February 29, 1936. The troops were surrounded.
To enlisted men! 1. It is still not too late, so return to your units. 2. All those who resist will be shot as rebels. 3. Your fathers, mothers, brothers, and sisters are all weeping because they will become traitors. Martial Law Headquarters, February 29.
Rebel troops returning to their barracks
Funeral of Korekiyo Takahashi

The February 26 Incident (二・二六事件) was an attempted coup d'état in the Empire of Japan on 26 February 1936.

German forces during the siege, November 1914

Siege of Tsingtao

4 links

German forces during the siege, November 1914
Suwo was the flagship of the Japanese expeditionary fleet during the siege of Tsingtao.
The Japanese seaplane carrier conducted the world's first naval-launched air raids in September 1914 against German positions in Tsingtao.
Japanese troops coming ashore near Tsingtao
German PoWs returning to Wilhelmshaven, Germany from Japan in February 1920
thumb|British troops arriving at Tsingtao in 1914
British, Indian and Japanese soldiers in Tsingtao, 1914.
Imperial Japanese Army uniform as worn on the expedition to Kiaochow
German front line at Tsingtao 1914; the head cover identifies these men as members of III Seebataillon (III Sea Battalion) of Marines.
thumb|German gun in the Bismarck Fortress, Tsing-Tau, crumpled by Japanese naval bombardment.

The siege of Tsingtao (or Tsingtau) was the attack on the German port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I by Japan and the United Kingdom.

On the far left is Ito Hirobumi of Choshu Domain, and on the far right is Okubo Toshimichi of Satsuma Domain. The two young men in the middle are the sons of the Satsuma clan daimyo. These young samurai contributed to the resignation of the Tokugawa shogunate to restore imperial rule.

Meiji Restoration

15 links

Political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

Political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

On the far left is Ito Hirobumi of Choshu Domain, and on the far right is Okubo Toshimichi of Satsuma Domain. The two young men in the middle are the sons of the Satsuma clan daimyo. These young samurai contributed to the resignation of the Tokugawa shogunate to restore imperial rule.
A teenage Emperor Meiji with foreign representatives at the end of the Boshin War, 1868–1870.
The Tokyo Koishikawa Arsenal was established in 1871.
Allegory of the New fighting the Old, in early Japan Meiji, around 1870

The ideal of samurai military spirit lived on in romanticized form and was often used as propaganda during the early 20th-century wars of the Empire of Japan.

Gyeongbokgung at night

Gyeongbokgung

3 links

The main royal palace of the Joseon dynasty.

The main royal palace of the Joseon dynasty.

Gyeongbokgung at night
Gyeongbokgung at night
Overview of Gyeongbokgung
King Taejo
The Japanese General Government Building standing in front of Geunjeongmun Gate prior to its demolition (1995-96)
Gyeongbokgung today
Gwanghwamun Gate (광화문)
Heungnyemun Gate (흥례문)
Geunjeongmun Gate (근정문)
Gyeonghoeru Pavilion (경회루) at night
Geunjeongjeon (Throne Hall)
The throne in Geunjeongjeon
Rank Stones
Sajeongjeon
Gyeonghoeru (Royal Banquet Hall)
Sujeongjeon
Gangnyeongjeon (King's Quarters)
Gyotaejeon (Queen's Quarters)
Hyangwonjeong
Jagyeongjeon (Quarters of the King's mother)
Jibokjae (Private Royal Library)
Donggung
Geoncheonggung
Re-enactments of Korean royal guard at Gyeongbokgung, Seoul, South Korea

In the early 20th century, much of the palace was systematically destroyed by Imperial Japan.

Clockwise from top:A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir

UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon

Korean refugees in front of a U.S. M46 Patton tank

U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon

F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft

Korean War

8 links

Fought between North Korea and South Korea from 1950 to 1953.

Fought between North Korea and South Korea from 1950 to 1953.

Clockwise from top:A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir

UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon

Korean refugees in front of a U.S. M46 Patton tank

U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon

F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft
Territory often changed hands early in the war, until the front stabilized.
Hundreds of thousands of South Koreans fled south in mid-1950 after the North Korean army invaded.
A U.S. howitzer position near the Kum River, 15 July
Man of the Year, the American soldier on Time magazine cover, 1951
G.I. comforting a grieving infantryman
M24 Chaffee light tanks of the US Army's 25th Infantry Division wait for an assault of North Korean T-34-85 tanks at Masan
Crew of an M-24 tank along the Nakdong River front, August 1950
Pershing and Sherman tanks of the 73rd Heavy Tank Battalion at the Pusan Docks, Korea.
General Douglas MacArthur, UN Command CiC (seated), observes the naval shelling of Incheon from USS Mount McKinley (AGC-7), 15 September 1950
Combat in the streets of Seoul
Pershing tanks in downtown Seoul during the Second Battle of Seoul in September 1950. In the foreground, United Nations troops round up North Korean prisoners-of-war.
US Air Force attacking railroads south of Wonsan on the eastern coast of North Korea
Chinese forces cross the frozen Yalu River.
Three commanders of PVA during the Korean War. From left to right: Chen Geng (1952), Peng Dehuai (1950–1952) and Deng Hua (1952–1953)
Soldiers from the US 2nd Infantry Division in action near the Ch'ongch'on River, 20 November 1950
A column of the US 1st Marine Division move through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir.
Map of the UN retreat in the wake of Chinese intervention
B-26 Invaders bomb logistics depots in Wonsan, North Korea, 1951
US Marines move out over rugged mountain terrain while closing with North Korean forces.
British UN troops advance alongside a Centurion tank, March 1951
US M46 Patton tanks, painted with tiger heads thought to demoralize Chinese forces
New Zealand artillery crew in action, 1952
Men from the Royal Australian Regiment, June 1953
Delegates sign the Korean Armistice Agreement in P'anmunjŏm.
A U.S. Army officer confers with South Korean soldiers at Observation Post (OP) Ouellette, viewing northward, in April 2008
The DMZ as seen from the north, 2005
Korean War memorials are found in every UN Command Korean War participant country; this one is in Pretoria, South Africa.
A soldier of the Dutch detachment of the UN forces in North Korea prepares to return sniper fire, 1952
To disrupt North Korean communications, USS Missouri (BB-63) fires a salvo from its 16-inch guns at shore targets near Chongjin, North Korea, 21 October 1950
A B-29 Superfortress bomber dropping its bombs
A US Navy Sikorsky HO4S flying near USS Sicily (CVE-118)
Pyongyang in May 1951
A USAF Douglas B-26B Invader of the 452nd Bombardment Wing bombing a target in North Korea, 29 May 1951
Mark 4 bomb, seen on display, transferred to the 9th Bombardment Wing, Heavy
South Korean soldiers walk among the bodies of political prisoners executed near Daejon, July 1950
Civilians killed during a night battle near Yongsan, August 1950
A US Marine guards North Korean prisoners of war aboard an American warship in 1951.
Two Hill 303 survivors after being rescued by US units, 17 August 1950
Bob Hope entertained X Corps in Korea on 26 October 1950.
The Korean Peninsula at night, shown in a 2012 composite photograph from NASA
North Koreans touring the Museum of American War Atrocities in 2009

Imperial Japan severely diminished the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire.

Sadao Araki

5 links

General in the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II.

General in the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II.

Time Magazine January 23, 1933
Sadao Araki during the trial for war crimes at International Military Tribunal for the Far East, 1947

As one of the principal nationalist right-wing political theorists in the Empire of Japan, he was regarded as the leader of the radical faction within the politicized Imperial Japanese Army and served as Minister of War under Prime Minister Inukai.

Joseon

13 links

The last dynastic kingdom of Korea, lasting just over 500 years.

The last dynastic kingdom of Korea, lasting just over 500 years.

Territory of Joseon after King Sejong's conquest of Jurchen in 1433
King Taejo's portrait
Territory of Joseon after King Sejong's conquest of Jurchen in 1433
The throne at Gyeongbok Palace
Portrait of Ha Yeon, who served as Yeonguijeong during the King Sejong's reign
A page from the Hunmin Jeongeum Eonhae, a partial translation of Hunminjeongeum, the original promulgation of the Korean alphabet
Portrait of the neo-Confucian scholar, Jo Gwang-jo (1482–1519)
Jeong Cheol (1536–1593), head of the Western faction
The Turtle ship (replica)
The Turtle Ship interior
A Korean painting depicting two Jurchen warriors and their horses
Portrait of Kim Yuk 김육 (1570–1658), an early Silhak philosopher of the Joseon period
Hwaseong Fortress in Suwon
Sinjeong, Queen Regent of Joseon. She served as nominal regent of Joseon, who selected Gojong to place upon the throne.
Heungseon Daewongun
Emperor Gojong
The Phoenix Throne of the king of Joseon in Gyeongbok Palace
Portrait of Chief State Councillor Chae Je-gong (1720–1799)
Portrait of the Inspector General Yun Bonggu (1681–1767)
Portrait of Kim Hu (1751–1805), a military officer of the Joseon Dynasty
Woman's mourning clothes in Joseon
A portrait of a civil bureaucrat in the Joseon period
A Joseon painting which represents the Chungin (literally "middle people"), equivalent to the petite bourgeoisie
Men's (right) and Women's (left) clothes (Hanbok) of Joseon period. A portrait painted by Shin Yun-bok (1758–?).
Male dress of a Seonbi. A portrait painted by Yi Jae-gwan (1783–1837).
Royal ceremony with Joseon era clothing
Early Joseon landscape painting by Seo Munbo in the late 15th century
15th century. Joseon period, Korea. Blue and white porcelain jar with plum and bamboo design.
Landscape of Mt. Geumgang by Kim Hong-do (1745–1806) in 1788
Korean celestial globe first made by the scientist Jang Yeong-sil during the reign of King Sejong
Surviving portion of the Water Clock (Jagyeongnu)
Japanese illustration of King Gojong and Queen Min receiving Inoue Kaoru
This compilation photo, taken about 1915, shows the following royal family members, from left: Prince Imperial Ui, the 6th son of Gojong; Emperor Sunjong, the 2nd son and the last monarch of Korea; Prince Imperial Yeong, the 7th son; Gojong, the former King; Empress Yun, wife of Sunjong; Lady Kim, wife of Prince Imperial Ui; and Yi Geon, the eldest son of Prince Ui. The seated child in the front row is Princess Deokhye, Gojong's last child. (This is a compilation of individual photographs since the Japanese did not allow them to be in the same room at the same time, and some were forced to leave Korea).
Seal used from 1392 to 1401
Seal used from 1401 to 1637<ref>Veritable Records of Taejong, vol. 1, year of 1401, 6th month, 12nd day</ref>
Seal used between 1637<ref>Veritable Records of Injoo, vol. 35, year of 1637, 11th month, 20nd day.</ref> and 1653<ref>{{cite book |author= 김지남 |date= 1888 |title= Record of Joseon Diplomacy |volume= 3 |chapter=9|url= https://kyudb.snu.ac.kr/book/view.do?book_cd=GK00882_00 |page=126~127 }}</ref>
Seal used between 1653 and 1776<ref>Veritable Records of Jeongjo, vol. 2, year of 1776, 8th month, 18nd day</ref>
Seal used between 1776 and 1876
The seal was produced on December 15, 1876, for use in Japanese-related state documents.
"Daegunjubo" designed to replace the former sergeant "Joseongukwangjiin", used as the seal of the king for documents such as appointment documents for high-ranking government officials and ordinances proclaimed in Korea, between 1882 and 1897<ref name="great">Journal of the Royal Secretariat, vol. 2902, year of 1882, 7th month, 1nd day</ref>
"DaejoseonDaegunjubo" were used as the 'seal of state' for credentials in diplomatic relations with other countries, between 1882{{clarification needed|date=April 2022}}

In 1910 the Japanese Empire finally annexed Korea.

Sabal Tongmun code, made by twenty rebels of Jeongeub, Gobu, and Taein, including Jeon Bongjun

Donghak Peasant Revolution

3 links

Armed rebellion in Korea led by peasants and followers of the Donghak religion, a pantheistic religion viewed by many rebels as a political ideology.

Armed rebellion in Korea led by peasants and followers of the Donghak religion, a pantheistic religion viewed by many rebels as a political ideology.

Sabal Tongmun code, made by twenty rebels of Jeongeub, Gobu, and Taein, including Jeon Bongjun
Jeon Bongjun, the leader of the revolution
Son Byeongheui, leader of the Northern Jeob
Rebel leader Kim Gaenam, also known as 'King Gaenam', fought in the Battle of Cheongju
The capture of Jeon Bongjun. He is in the center, seated in a carriage because his legs were broken in the escape attempt.
Choe Sihyeong after capture
Great Regent Heungseon in 1869

10) Punish those who cooperate with the Empire of Japan.