Empiricism

empiricistempiricalempiricallyempiricistsempirical scienceBritish empiricismBritish Empiricistsempirical analysisBritish Empiricistempirical world
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.wikipedia
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Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation. A central concept in science and the scientific method is that conclusions must be empirically based on the evidence of the senses.
Important debates in the history of science concern rationalism, especially as advocated by René Descartes; inductivism and/or empiricism, as argued for by Francis Bacon, and rising to particular prominence with Isaac Newton and his followers; and hypothetico-deductivism, which came to the fore in the early 19th century.

John Locke

LockeLockeanJ Locke
For example, John Locke held that some knowledge (e.g. knowledge of God's existence) could be arrived at through intuition and reasoning alone. The Latin translation of his philosophical novel, entitled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume were the primary exponents of empiricism in the 18th century Enlightenment, with Locke being normally known as the founder of empiricism as such.
Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory.

Theory

theoreticaltheoriestheorist
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
At least some of the elementary theorems of a philosophical theory are statements whose truth cannot necessarily be scientifically tested through empirical observation.

Revelation

divine revelationrevealedrevealed religion
It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation.
In general revelation, God reveals himself through his creation, such that at least some truths about God can be learned by the empirical study of nature, physics, cosmology, etc., to an individual.

Innatism

innate ideasinnate ideainnate knowledge
Empiricism emphasises the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, rather than innate ideas or traditions.
Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
It is one of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism.
In philosophy, empiricism is generally a theory of knowledge focusing on the role of experience, especially experience based on perceptual observations by the senses.

Philosophy of science

philosopher of sciencephilosophers of sciencephilosophy
Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasises evidence, especially as discovered in experiments.
Logical positivism accepts only testable statements as meaningful, rejects metaphysical interpretations, and embraces verificationism (a set of theories of knowledge that combines logicism, empiricism, and linguistics to ground philosophy on a basis consistent with examples from the empirical sciences).

Intuition

intuitiveintuitivelyIntuition (knowledge)
It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation. For example, John Locke held that some knowledge (e.g. knowledge of God's existence) could be arrived at through intuition and reasoning alone.
Hume claims intuition is a recognition of relationships (relation of time, place, and causation) while he states that "the resemblance" (recognition of relations) "will strike the eye" (which would not require further examination) but goes on to state, "or rather in mind"—attributing intuition to power of mind, contradicting the theory of empiricism.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
A central concept in science and the scientific method is that conclusions must be empirically based on the evidence of the senses.
Both natural and social sciences are empirical sciences as their knowledge are based on empirical observations and are capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions.

Philosophical skepticism

skepticismscepticismskeptical hypothesis
It is one of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism.
By Sextus' time, the Academy had ceased to be a skeptical or probabilistic school, and argued in a different direction, incorporating aspects of empiricism into the basis for evaluating knowledge, but without the insistence on experience as the absolute standard of it.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Empiricism is the emphasis on observational evidence via sensory experience as the source of knowledge.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingEssay on Human UnderstandingAn Essay on Human Understanding
The Latin translation of his philosophical novel, entitled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
The essay was one of the principal sources of empiricism in modern philosophy, and influenced many enlightenment philosophers, such as David Hume and George Berkeley.

Francis Bacon

Sir Francis BaconBaconLord Bacon
Significantly, an empirical metaphysical system was developed by the Italian philosopher Bernardino Telesio which had an enormous impact on the development of later Italian thinkers, including Telesio's students Antonio Persio and Sertorio Quattromani, his contemporaries Thomas Campanella and Giordano Bruno, and later British philosophers such as Francis Bacon, who regarded Telesio as "the first of the moderns.” Telesio's influence can also be seen on the French philosophers René Descartes and Pierre Gassendi.
Bacon has been called the father of empiricism.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

LeibnizGottfried LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
The main continental rationalists (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were also advocates of the empirical "scientific method".
Leibniz’ epistemological position—against John Locke and English empiricism (sensualism)—was made clear: “Nihil est in intellectu quod non fuerit in sensu, nisi intellectu ipse.” – “Nothing is in the intellect that was not first in the senses, except the intellect itself.” Principles that are not present in sensory impressions can be recognised in human perception and consciousness: logical inferences, categories of thought, the principle of causality and the principle of purpose (teleology).

Ancient philosophy

classical philosophyAncientclassical
In the late renaissance various writers began to question the medieval and classical understanding of knowledge acquisition in a more fundamental way.

Falsifiability

falsifiableunfalsifiablefalsification
Empiricism, often used by natural scientists, says that "knowledge is based on experience" and that "knowledge is tentative and probabilistic, subject to continued revision and falsification".
Some economists, such as those of the Austrian School, believe that macroeconomics is empirically unfalsifiable and that thus the only appropriate means to understand economic events is by logically studying the intentions of individual economic decision-makers, based on certain fundamental truths.

René Descartes

DescartesCartesianRene Descartes
Significantly, an empirical metaphysical system was developed by the Italian philosopher Bernardino Telesio which had an enormous impact on the development of later Italian thinkers, including Telesio's students Antonio Persio and Sertorio Quattromani, his contemporaries Thomas Campanella and Giordano Bruno, and later British philosophers such as Francis Bacon, who regarded Telesio as "the first of the moderns.” Telesio's influence can also be seen on the French philosophers René Descartes and Pierre Gassendi. The main continental rationalists (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were also advocates of the empirical "scientific method".
Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Spinoza and Leibniz, and was later opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.

Pierre Gassendi

GassendiGassendi, PierreGASSENDI, PETER
Significantly, an empirical metaphysical system was developed by the Italian philosopher Bernardino Telesio which had an enormous impact on the development of later Italian thinkers, including Telesio's students Antonio Persio and Sertorio Quattromani, his contemporaries Thomas Campanella and Giordano Bruno, and later British philosophers such as Francis Bacon, who regarded Telesio as "the first of the moderns.” Telesio's influence can also be seen on the French philosophers René Descartes and Pierre Gassendi.
Richard Popkin indicates that Gassendi was one of the first thinkers to formulate the modern "scientific outlook", of moderated skepticism and empiricism.

David Hume

HumeHumeanHume, David
John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume were the primary exponents of empiricism in the 18th century Enlightenment, with Locke being normally known as the founder of empiricism as such.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, scepticism, and naturalism.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume were the primary exponents of empiricism in the 18th century Enlightenment, with Locke being normally known as the founder of empiricism as such.
The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on the sovereignty of reason and the evidence of the senses as the primary sources of knowledge and advanced ideals such as liberty, progress, toleration, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.

Theologus Autodidactus

Al-Risalah al-Kamiliyyah fil Siera al-NabawiyyahThe Treatise of Kamil
A similar Islamic theological novel, Theologus Autodidactus, was written by the Arab theologian and physician Ibn al-Nafis in the 13th century.
Ibn al-Nafis uses the plot to express many of his own religious, philosophical and scientific themes on a wide variety of subjects, including biology, cosmology, empiricism, epistemology, experimentation, futurology, geology, Islamic eschatology, natural philosophy, the philosophy of history and sociology, the philosophy of religion, physiology, psychology, and teleology.

History of science

historian of sciencemodern sciencehistory
British empiricism, though it was not a term used at the time, derives from the 17th century period of early modern philosophy and modern science.
1550 BC) also contains evidence of traditional empiricism.

Rationalism

rationalistrationalistsrationalistic
It is one of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism. The main continental rationalists (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were also advocates of the empirical "scientific method".
In an old controversy, rationalism was opposed to empiricism, where the rationalists believed that reality has an intrinsically logical structure.

Phaedo

PhaedPhaidonPhædo
These notions contrasted with Platonic notions of the human mind as an entity that pre-existed somewhere in the heavens, before being sent down to join a body on Earth (see Plato's Phaedo and Apology, as well as others).
* The Theory of Recollection explains that we possess some non-empirical knowledge (e.g. The Form of Equality) at birth, implying the soul existed before birth to carry that knowledge.

Immanuel Kant

KantKantianKant, Immanuel
Hume divided all of human knowledge into two categories: relations of ideas and matters of fact (see also Kant's analytic-synthetic distinction).
Kant regarded himself as showing the way past the impasse between rationalists and empiricists, and is widely held to have synthesized both traditions in his thought.