Employment and Support Allowance

Employment Support AllowanceESA
Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) is a United Kingdom welfare payment for adults younger than the State Pension age who are having difficulty finding work because of their long-term medical condition or a disability.wikipedia
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Universal Credit

Universal Credit.
It is currently being phased out and replaced with Universal Credit.
It is replacing and combining six benefits for working-age people who have a low household income: income-based Employment and Support Allowance, income-based Jobseeker's Allowance, and Income Support; Child Tax Credit and Working Tax Credit; and Housing Benefit.

Work Capability Assessment

Atos Healthcarecapability assessmentscontracts by their healthcare division
After that, the basic allowance is paid to the claimant until their Work Capability Assessment (WCA) at - in theory - week 13, after which a successful claimant might receive an enhanced level of payment (depending on the level of disability and whether they enter the work-related activity group or the support group after their assessment).
The Work Capability Assessment (WCA) is the test used by the British Government's Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) to decide whether welfare claimants are entitled to Employment Support Allowance (ESA), or more recently, the limited capacity for work component of Universal Credit (UC).

Income Support

state benefitsupport
They will not be paid ESA if they are entitled to Statutory Sick Pay (this usually means "if they have a job", but there are exceptions) and it is not possible to receive ESA at the same time as the other main out-of-work benefits, i.e. Jobseekers Allowance or Income Support. ESA superseded three older benefits: Incapacity Benefit; Income Support paid because of an illness or disability; and Severe Disablement Allowance.
On 27 October 2008, the Employment and Support Allowance replaced Income Support claimed on grounds of sickness or disability.

Statutory sick pay

They will not be paid ESA if they are entitled to Statutory Sick Pay (this usually means "if they have a job", but there are exceptions) and it is not possible to receive ESA at the same time as the other main out-of-work benefits, i.e. Jobseekers Allowance or Income Support.
If the individual is unable to work due to medical reasons for longer than the 28 weeks, entitlement to SSP ceases, but the person may be entitled to Employment and Support Allowance.

Incapacity Benefit

Incapacityindustrial injury benefitInvalidity Benefit
ESA superseded three older benefits: Incapacity Benefit; Income Support paid because of an illness or disability; and Severe Disablement Allowance. It called for the greater use of private sector companies who would be paid by results, for substantial resources to be made available to help people on Incapacity Benefit back into work, and for a single working age benefit payment to replace Housing Benefit, Jobseekers Allowance and all other working-age benefits.
The government began to phase out Incapacity Benefit in 2008 by making it unavailable to new claimants, and later moved almost all the remaining long-term recipients onto Employment and Support Allowance.

National Insurance

National Insurance ContributionsMinistry of National InsuranceNational Health Insurance Commission
If claimants have paid enough National Insurance they can claim contributory ESA.
For the most part, unlike Class 1, they do not form part of a qualifying contribution record for contributions-based Jobseekers Allowance, but do count towards Employment and Support Allowance.

Jobseeker's Allowance

Jobseekers Allowancedolethe dole
They will not be paid ESA if they are entitled to Statutory Sick Pay (this usually means "if they have a job", but there are exceptions) and it is not possible to receive ESA at the same time as the other main out-of-work benefits, i.e. Jobseekers Allowance or Income Support.
Certain other benefits including Statutory Sick Pay, Statutory Paternity Pay, Statutory Maternity Pay, statutory adoption pay, Employment and Support Allowance, bereavement benefit, Carer's Allowance and JSA(C) itself also count towards Class 1 contributions and are called "Credited Class 1 contributions".

Severe Disablement Allowance

ESA superseded three older benefits: Incapacity Benefit; Income Support paid because of an illness or disability; and Severe Disablement Allowance.
It was replaced by Incapacity Benefit in April 2001, which itself was replaced by Employment and Support Allowance.

Department for Work and Pensions

Department of Work and PensionsWork and PensionsDWP
The Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) contracted Atos to perform the WCA when it introduced ESA.
The department has four operational organisations: Jobcentre Plus administers working age benefits such as Jobseeker's Allowance, and decides which claimants receive Employment and Support Allowance; the Pension Service which pays the Basic State Pension and Pension Credit and provides information on related issues; Disability and Carers Service which provides financial support to disabled people and their carers; and the Child Maintenance Group which provides the statutory Child Support Schemes, operating as the Child Support Agency and the Child Maintenance Service.

Welfare Reform Act 2007

Welfare Reform ActWelfare Reform (2007 Act)Welfare Reform Bill
The resulting Welfare Reform Bill was introduced to Parliament for consideration in July 2006.
The Act replaces Incapacity Benefit with a new benefit, Employment and Support Allowance.

Criticism of Employment Support Allowance

Criticism of the Work Capability Assessmentstudy
Criticism of the Work Capability Assessment, used by the Department for Work and Pensions in the United Kingdom, to assess and reassess claimants of Employment and Support Allowance or enhanced rate Universal Credit, has been wide-ranging, from the procedure itself, to the financial cost of using both Atos and Maximus to assess claimants.

Stephen Crabb

Stephen '''Crabb
In 2016, Stephen Crabb, who was the secretary of state for the DWP, declared that there would be no new welfare policies, other than those set out in the Conservative Party manifesto of 2015, in that parliamentary term.
On 2 March 2016, Crabb voted with the government to reduce by £30 per week the amount of Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) paid to disabled people newly placed in the cohort of recipients known as the work-related activity group from April 2017.

Disability pension

disabilityDisability retirementinvalidity pension
In order to cover loss of income from illness and disability, there is also Statutory Sick Pay, and its long term equivalent - Employment and Support Allowance (ESA).

Means test

means-testedmeans-testingmeans testing
Income-related ESA is for people who have not paid enough National Insurance contributions and is subject to a means test and certain other conditions (although the amount paid as contributions-based ESA can also be affected by financial circumstances).

Capital rule

capital
A person must have capital of less than £16,000 to be eligible for income-based ESA.

Maximus Inc.

MaximusMaximus IncMAXIMUS Federal Services Inc.
The completed form must then be sent in the envelope provided to the Health Assessment Advisory Service - the trading name of the assessment provider, Maximus.

Alan Johnson

Alan Johnson MPJohnsonA. Johnson
In February 2005, the Welfare Secretary Alan Johnson announced plans to replace Incapacity Benefit with two new benefits: "Disability and Sickness Allowance", for people deemed too ill to work; and "Rehabilitation Support Allowance", paid at the same rate as Jobseekers Allowance to less disabled people, who would be supported by the DWP back into work.

Atos

Atos OriginAtos IT SystemsAtos SE
The Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) contracted Atos to perform the WCA when it introduced ESA. In March 2005, Atos was awarded the contract to work with the DWP to build the software programme that would be used in the assessment of claims for the allowance that would take the place of Incapacity Benefit.

John Hutton, Baron Hutton of Furness

John HuttonLord Hutton of FurnessHutton
In January 2006, John Hutton published a White Paper outlining the government's latest plans for welfare reform: the benefit that would replace Incapacity Benefit would be called Employment and Support Allowance and its gateway assessment would be transformed.

David Freud, Baron Freud

Lord FreudDavid FreudThe Lord Freud
Blair appointed David Freud, as an advisor on out-of-work benefit reform in December 2006.

Working age

working-age
It called for the greater use of private sector companies who would be paid by results, for substantial resources to be made available to help people on Incapacity Benefit back into work, and for a single working age benefit payment to replace Housing Benefit, Jobseekers Allowance and all other working-age benefits.

Paul Gregg (academic)

Paul Gregg
In December 2008, Paul Gregg published a report that recommended that most people on ESA should have to undertake work-related activity.

Damian Green

Damian Green MPDamian '''GreenDamien Green
In October 2016, Damian Green announced a consultation exercise on reforming the WCA.

Public Accounts Committee (United Kingdom)

Public Accounts CommitteePublic Accounts Select CommitteeCommittee of Public Accounts
A Public Accounts Committee report accused the DWP of haste over the transfer while failing to take legal advice or make basic checks.