Empress Dowager Cixi
CixiEmpress DowagerTzu HsiDowager Empress CixiEmpress Tz'u-hsiDowager EmpressEmpress Dowager Ci XiEmpress XiaoqinxianNoble Consort YiYehonala
Empress Dowager Cixi ([tsʰɨ̌.ɕì tʰâi.xôu]; Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehe Nara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years, from 1861 until her death in 1908.wikipedia
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Sino-Japanese WarSino-Japanese War (1894-1895)Sino–Japanese War
In 1894, the First Sino-Japanese War broke out at the instigation of Japan which used the war as a pretext to annex Taiwan from Qing China.
When it was first developed by Empress Dowager Cixi in 1888, the Beiyang Fleet was said to be the strongest navy in East Asia.
Edwin Hurd CongerEdwin Conger
In 1903, she acquiesced to the request of Sarah Conger, wife of Edwin H. Conger, the U.S. Ambassador to China, to have her portrait painted by American artist Katharine Carl for the St. Louis World's Fair.
Conger was married to Sarah Pike, also from Iowa, an author, a Christian Scientist, and a leader of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union who accompanied him to China, and would be later known for befriending China's Empress Dowager Cixi.
Empress Dowager Cixi
In 2013, Jung Chang's biography, Empress Dowager Cixi: The Concubine Who Launched Modern China, portrays Cixi as the most capable ruler and administrator that China could have had at the time.
Chang presents a sympathetic portrait of the Empress Dowager Cixi, who unofficially controlled the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908.
In July 1928, Cixi's tomb was plundered by the warlord Sun Dianying and his army as part of the looting of the Eastern Mausoleum.
The tombs desecrated included that of the late Empress Dowager Cixi.
Taiping rebelsTaipingTaiping Revolution
The effects of the Second Opium War were still hovering over the country, and the Taiping Rebellion continued its seemingly unstoppable advance through China's south, eating up the Qing Empire bit by bit.
It is written in first person and is a sympathetic account of the life of Empress Dowager Cixi - from her humble beginnings to her rise as the Empress Dowager.
Her breakthrough role was the ruthless Qing dynasty Empress Dowager Cixi in The Burning of the Imperial Palace (1983) and Reign Behind the Curtain (1984).
The Last EmpressThe Last Empress'' (novel)
The Last Empress is a historical novel by Anchee Min that provides a sympathetic account of the life of Empress Dowager Cixi (referred to as Empress Orchid), from her rise to power as Empress Tzu-Hsi, until her death at 72 years of age.
Empress Dowager Cixi was interred amidst the Eastern Qing tombs, 125 km east of Beijing, in the Eastern Ding Mausoleum, along with Empress Dowager Ci'an.
To the west lie Yuling (Qianlong Emperor), Ding Dongling (Dowager Empress Cixi and Empress Ci'an), and Dingling (Xianfeng Emperor).
Dame Flora RobsonFlora McKenzie Robson
Her other film roles included the Empress Dowager Cixi in 55 Days at Peking (1963), Miss Milchrest in Murder at the Gallop (1963), the Queen of Hearts in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1972), and Livia in the aborted I, Claudius in 1937.
SacklerSackler GallerySackler Galleries
The rare glass plates have been blown up into full-size images, included in the exhibition "The Empress Dowager" at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Photography was the focus of a fall 2011 exhibition focusing on a collection of photographs of Empress Dowager Cixi, taken by a diplomat's son, Xunling.
The Empress Dowager is a 1975 Hong Kong historical film directed by Li Han-hsiang and produced by the Shaw Brothers Studio, starring Lisa Lu as Empress Dowager Cixi.
The Confidant (Traditional Chinese: 大太監; jyutping: Daai6 Taai3 Gaam3) is a Hong Kong biographical fiction television drama produced by TVB under executive producer Marco Law, and stars Michelle Yim as Empress Dowager Cixi, and Wayne Lai as imperial eunuch Li Lianying.
marble pleasure boatStone Boat
The long-time China journalist Jasper Becker recalled that "every visitor to the Summer Palace is shown the beautiful lakeside pavilion in the shape of an elegant marble pleasure boat and told how Cixi spent funds destined for the imperial navy on such extravagant fripperies—which ultimately led to Japan's victory over China in 1895 and the loss of Taiwan".
It was restored in 1893 on order of Empress Dowager Cixi.
The Tongzhi Emperor received a rigorous education from four famous teachers of Cixi's own choosing: Li Hongzao, Qi Junzao, Weng Xincun, and Woren.
In 1884, Li and all the Grand Councillors, such as Yixin, who had been supported by the Empress Dowager, Cixi, were dismissed in a dispute with a group of conservative officials.
Battle of PekingRelief of PekingBattle of Beijing
During the Battle of Beijing, the entire imperial court, including Empress Dowager Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor, fled Beijing and evacuated to Xi'an as the allied forces invaded the city.
The Dowager Empress, Cixi, the emperor and several members of the court fled Peking in the early morning of 15 August, only a few hours before the Americans knocked up against the wall of the Forbidden City.
Yu DelingDer LingTak Ling
Between 1903 and 1905, Cixi had a Western-educated lady-in-waiting by the name of Yu Deling, along with her sister and mother, serve at her court.
He was known for his progressive, reformist views; for his determination to educate his children, including the girls, in western schools, which was highly unusual in their generation; and for his unvarying support of the Empress Dowager Cixi.
T'an Ssu-t'ungTam Chi TongTam Chi Tung
Most of his supporters, including his political mentor Kang Youwei, fled into exile, and the six prominent reformers including Tan Sitong and Kang's younger brother, were publicly beheaded.
When Tan heard that the Empress Dowager Cixi was brewing a scheme of putting the emperor under house arrest for initiating the new policies, he immediately visited general Yuan Shikai on September 18, in the hope that Yuan's army might support the Reformation Movement and prevail over the opposition forces headed by Empress Cixi.
Sterling V.Seagrave, SterlingSterling and Peggy Seagrave
Sterling Seagrave's Dragon Lady: The Life and Legend of the Last Empress of China portrays Cixi as a woman stuck between the xenophobic faction of Manchu nobility and more moderate influences.
Dragon Lady challenges the notion that the Empress Dowager Cixi used the Boxers in the Boxer Rebellion.
The politically sensitive issues which likely triggered the heavy censorship of the series included issues such as the more sympathetic and complex portrayal of Empress Dowager Cixi, Yuan Shikai and Li Hongzhang, who are usually portrayed in a negative light in official Chinese historiography.
Nothing Gold Can StayNothing Gold Can Stay'' (TV series)
The series is an original script based off the real-life story of Widow An Wu, who was known as the god-daughter of Empress Dowager Cixi.
L'ultimo imperatoreAcademy Award for Best PictureLast Emperor
42 years earlier, in 1908, a toddler Puyi is summoned to the Forbidden City by the dying Empress Dowager Cixi.
Order of the Precious Crown, 4th Class, WisteriaGrand Cordon of the Order of the Precious CrownOrder of the Precious Crown of the Third Class
Dame Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Crown (Empire of Japan).
After being captured by the Imperials, he meets Xianfeng Emperor and becomes the prisoner and lover of Yehonala, the imperial concubine.
So Little Time
The turmoil in China worsens as the Boxer secret societies gain tacit approval from the Dowager Empress Cixi (Flora Robson).