Encryption

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In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot, Encryption does not itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor.wikipedia
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Cryptography

cryptographiccryptographercryptology
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot, Encryption does not itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor.
Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense.

Plaintext

cleartextin the clearunencrypted
In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted.
In cryptography, plaintext usually means unencrypted information pending input into cryptographic algorithms, usually encryption algorithms.

Ciphertext

Cipher textciphertextscyphertext
In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted.
In cryptography, ciphertext or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher.

Cipher

cipherscyphercipher machine
In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.

Enigma machine

EnigmaEnigma codeEnigma cipher machine
An example of a symmetric key is the German military's Enigma Machine.
The Enigma machine is an encryption device developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.

Key (cryptography)

keykeysencryption key
An authorized recipient can easily decrypt the message with the key provided by the originator to recipients but not to unauthorized users.
For encryption algorithms, a key specifies the transformation of plaintext into ciphertext, and vice versa for decryption algorithms.

Digital rights management

DRMDRM-freedigital restrictions management
Digital rights management systems, which prevent unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering (see also copy protection), is another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest.
Encryption, scrambling of expressive material and embedding of a tag, which is designed to control access and reproduction of information, including backup copies for personal use.

Crypto-shredding

This method is called crypto-shredding.
Crypto-shredding is the practice of 'deleting' data by deliberately deleting or overwriting the encryption keys.

Homomorphic encryption

homomorphicfully homomorphic encryptionFHE
Homomorphic encryption and secure multi-party computation are emerging techniques to compute on encrypted data; these techniques are general and Turing complete but incur high computational and/or communication costs.
Homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption that allows computation on ciphertexts, generating an encrypted result which, when decrypted, matches the result of the operations as if they had been performed on the plaintext.

USB flash drive

flash driveUSB flash drivesUSB drive
Encryption can be used to protect data "at rest", such as information stored on computers and storage devices (e.g. USB flash drives).
The use of biometrics and encryption is becoming the norm with the need for increased security for data; on-the-fly encryption systems are particularly useful in this regard, as they can transparently encrypt large amounts of data.

Automated teller machine

ATMATMsautomatic teller machine
Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines.
In March 1972, Atalla filed for his PIN verification system, which included an encoded card reader and described a system that utilized encryption techniques to assure telephone link security while entering personal ID information that was transmitted to a remote location for verification.

E-commerce

electronic commerceeCommerceonline
Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines.

Ransomware

cryptotrojanRansomware (malware)Bad Rabbit ransomware attack - 2017
These more recent threats to encryption of data at rest include cryptographic attacks, stolen ciphertext attacks, attacks on encryption keys, insider attacks, data corruption or integrity attacks, data destruction attacks, and ransomware attacks.
While some simple ransomware may lock the system in a way which is not difficult for a knowledgeable person to reverse, more advanced malware uses a technique called cryptoviral extortion, in which it encrypts the victim's files, making them inaccessible, and demands a ransom payment to decrypt them.

Information security

securityINFOSECinformation
Encryption is an important tool but is not sufficient alone to ensure the security or privacy of sensitive information throughout its lifetime.
The end of the twentieth century and the early years of the twenty-first century saw rapid advancements in telecommunications, computing hardware and software, and data encryption.

Hardware-based encryption

cryptographic hardwarehardware to perform encryption
Standards for cryptographic software and hardware to perform encryption are widely available, but successfully using encryption to ensure security may be a challenging problem.
Hardware-based encryption is the use of computer hardware to assist software, or sometimes replace software, in the process of data encryption.

Traffic analysis

traffic analyststraffic-flow securitytraffic
See for example traffic analysis, TEMPEST, or Trojan horse.
Traffic analysis is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication, which can be performed even when the messages are encrypted.

Copy protection

anti-piracycopy-protectedcopy protected
Digital rights management systems, which prevent unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering (see also copy protection), is another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest.
More recently, publishers of music and films in digital form have turned to encryption to make copying more difficult.

Transport Layer Security

SSLTLSSSL/TLS
The common practice of TLS interception by network operators represents a controlled and institutionally sanctioned form of such an attack, but countries have also attempted to employ such attacks as a form of control and censorship.

Active defense

Data fragmentation and active defense data protection technologies attempt to counter some of these attacks, by distributing, moving, or mutating ciphertext so it is more difficult to identify, steal, corrupt, or destroy.
For example, an active defense data protection strategy invented by CryptoMove leverages dynamic data movement, distribution, and re-encryption to make data harder to attack, steal, or destroy.

Substitution cipher

substitutionmonoalphabetic substitution ciphersubstitution ciphers
In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encrypting by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a fixed system; the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth.

Multiple encryption

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Multiple encryption is the process of encrypting an already encrypted message one or more times, either using the same or a different algorithm.

Rotor machine

rotor cipher machinerotorrotor cipher machines
In cryptography, a rotor machine is an electro-mechanical stream cipher device used for encrypting and decrypting secret messages.

Computer network

networkcomputer networkingnetworking
Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines.
It involves the originating party encrypting data so only the intended recipient can decrypt it, with no dependency on third parties.

Wireless microphone

radio microphoneswireless microphonesradio microphone
Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines.
However, some digital wireless microphone systems additionally offer encryption technology in an attempt to prevent more serious 'eavesdropping' which may be of concern for corporate users and those using radio microphones in security sensitive situations.

Bluetooth

Bluetooth 4.0Bluetooth 5.0Bluetooth 2.0
Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines.
Once a link key is generated, an authenticated Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL) link between the devices may be encrypted to protect exchanged data against eavesdropping.