Encryption

encryptedencryptencryptingdata encryptiondecryptencryption algorithmunencryptedencryptscryptographic algorithmcipher
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.wikipedia
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Cryptography

cryptographiccryptographercryptology
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense.

Plaintext

cleartextin the clearunencrypted
In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted.
Plaintext usually means unencrypted information pending input into cryptographic algorithms, usually encryption algorithms.

Ciphertext

ciphertextscipher textciphered text
In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted.
In cryptography, ciphertext or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher.

Cipher

cipherscyphercipher machine
In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.

Key (cryptography)

keykeysencryption key
An authorized recipient can easily decrypt the message with the key provided by the originator to recipients but not to unauthorized users.
For encryption algorithms, a key specifies the transformation of plaintext into ciphertext, and vice versa for decryption algorithms.

Enigma machine

EnigmaEnigma cipher machineEnigma code
An example of a symmetric key scheme would be the one used by the German Enigma Machine that sent information from a central location to troops in various other locations in secret.
By itself, a rotor performs only a very simple type of encryption, a simple substitution cipher.

Digital rights management

DRMDRM-freedigital rights management (DRM)
Digital rights management systems, which prevent unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering (see also copy protection), is another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest.
Encryption, scrambling of expressive material and embedding of a tag, which is designed to control access and reproduction of information, including backup copies for personal use.

Ransomware

cryptotrojancyber-kidnappingheld for ransom
These more recent threats to encryption of data at rest include cryptographic attacks, stolen ciphertext attacks, attacks on encryption keys, insider attacks, data corruption or integrity attacks, data destruction attacks, and ransomware attacks.
While some simple ransomware may lock the system in a way which is not difficult for a knowledgeable person to reverse, more advanced malware uses a technique called cryptoviral extortion, in which it encrypts the victim's files, making them inaccessible, and demands a ransom payment to decrypt them.

USB flash drive

flash driveUSB driveflash drives
Encryption can be used to protect data "at rest", such as information stored on computers and storage devices (e.g. USB flash drives).
The use of biometrics and encryption is becoming the norm with the need for increased security for data; on-the-fly encryption systems are particularly useful in this regard, as they can transparently encrypt large amounts of data.

Hardware-based encryption

cryptographic hardwarehardware to perform encryption
Standards for cryptographic software and hardware to perform encryption are widely available, but successfully using encryption to ensure security may be a challenging problem.
Hardware-based encryption is the use of computer hardware to assist software, or sometimes replace software, in the process of data encryption.

Traffic analysis

traffic analyststraffic-flow securitytraffic
See, e.g., traffic analysis, TEMPEST, or Trojan horse.
Traffic analysis is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication, which can be performed even when the messages are encrypted.

Active defense

Data fragmentation and active defense data protection technologies attempt to counter some of these attacks, by distributing, moving, or mutating ciphertext so it is more difficult to identify, steal, corrupt, or destroy.
For example, an active defense data protection strategy invented by CryptoMove leverages dynamic data movement, distribution, and re-encryption to make data harder to attack, steal, or destroy.

Copy protection

anti-piracycopy-protectedcopy protected
Digital rights management systems, which prevent unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering (see also copy protection), is another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest.
More recently, publishers of music and films in digital form have turned to encryption to make copying more difficult.

Crypto-shredding

This method is called crypto-shredding.
Crypto-shredding is the practice of 'deleting' data by deliberately deleting or overwriting the encryption keys.

Substitution cipher

substitutionmonoalphabetic substitution ciphersubstitution ciphers
Substitution cipher
In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encrypting by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a fixed system; the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth.

Rotor machine

rotor cipher machinerotorrotor cipher machines
Rotor cipher machines
In cryptography, a rotor machine is an electro-mechanical stream cipher device used for encrypting and decrypting secret messages.

Disk encryption

full disk encryptionon-the-fly encryptionon-the-fly
Disk encryption
Disk encryption uses disk encryption software or hardware to encrypt every bit of data that goes on a disk or disk volume.

Automated teller machine

ATMATMsautomatic teller machine
Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines.
Sensitive data in ATM transactions are usually encrypted with DES, but transaction processors now usually require the use of Triple DES.

Television encryption

encryptencryptedencryption
Television encryption
Television encryption, often referred to as "scrambling", is encryption used to control access to pay television services, usually cable or satellite television services.

Wireless microphone

radio microphoneradio microphoneswireless microphones
Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines.
Digital radio microphones are inherently more difficult for the casual 'scanner' listener to intercept because conventional "scanning receivers" are generally only capable of de-modulating conventional analogue modulation schemes such as FM and AM. However, some digital wireless microphone systems additionally offer encryption technology in an attempt to prevent more serious 'eavesdropping' which may be of concern for corporate users and those using radio microphones in security sensitive situations.

Computer network

networknetworkingcomputer networking
Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines.
It involves the originating party encrypting data so only the intended recipient can decrypt it, with no dependency on third parties.

Bluetooth

Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR4.0Bluetooth 2.1+EDR
Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines.
Once a link key is generated, an authenticated Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL) link between the devices may be encrypted to protect exchanged data against eavesdropping.

Encrypted function

Encrypted function
Polynomial and rational functions are encrypted such that their transformation can again be implemented as programs consisting of cleartext instructions that a processor or interpreter understands.

Tokenization (data security)

tokenizationtokenizedtoken
Tokenization (data security)
The choice of tokenization as an alternative to other techniques such as encryption will depend on varying regulatory requirements, interpretation, and acceptance by respective auditing or assessment entities.

Cyberspace Electronic Security Act

CESA
Cyberspace Electronic Security Act (US)
The Cyberspace Electronic Security Act of 1999 (CESA) is a bill proposed by the Clinton administration during the 106th United States Congress that enables the government to harvest keys used in encryption.