Encyclopedia

encyclopaediaencyclopedistencyclopedicencyclopediasencyclopaedistarticlesencyclopaediasencyclopaedicencyclopædiageneral encyclopedia
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or discipline.wikipedia
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Online encyclopedia

Internet encyclopedia projectInternet encyclopediaonline resource
The appearance of digital and open-source versions in the 21st century has vastly expanded the accessibility, authorship, readership, and variety of encyclopedia entries and called into question the idea of what an encyclopedia is and the relevance of applying to such dynamic productions the traditional criteria for assembling and evaluating print encyclopedias. In 2001, Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger launched Wikipedia, a multilingual, open-source, free online encyclopedia supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation.
An online encyclopedia, also called a digital encyclopedia, is an encyclopedia accessible through the internet.

Natural History (Pliny)

Natural HistoryNaturalis HistoriaHistoria Naturalis
Because of this compounded word, fifteenth century readers and since have often, and incorrectly, thought that the Roman authors Quintillian and Pliny described an ancient genre. One of the earliest encyclopedic works to have survived to modern times is the Naturalis Historiae of Pliny the Elder, a Roman statesman living in the first century AD.
It is encyclopedic in scope, but its structure is not like that of a modern encyclopedia.

Reference work

reference bookReferencereference books
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or discipline.
Reference works include dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, atlases, bibliographies, biographical sources, catalogs such as library catalogs and art catalogs, concordances, directories such as business directories and telephone directories, discographies, filmographies, glossaries, handbooks, indices such as bibliographic indices and citation indices, manuals, research guides, thesauruses, and yearbooks.

Paul Skalich

Pavao SkalićPaul SkalićPaul Scalich
For example: Jacobus Philomusus's Margarita philosophica encyclopaediam exhibens (1508); Johannes Aventinus's Encyclopedia orbisque doctrinarum, hoc est omnium artium, scientiarum, ipsius philosophiae index ac divisio; Joachimus Fortius Ringelbergius's Lucubrationes vel potius absolutissima kyklopaideia (1538, 1541); Paul Skalich's Encyclopaediæ, seu orbis disciplinarum, tam sacrarum quam prophanarum, epistemon (1559); Gregor Reisch's Margarita philosophica (1503, retitled Encyclopaedia in 1583); and Samuel Eisenmenger's Cyclopaedia Paracelsica (1585).
Paul Skalich (1534–1573), also known as Stanislav Pavao Skalić or Paulus Scalichius de Lika, was an encyclopedist, Renaissance humanist, and adventurer born in Zagreb (modern Croatia), and who lived part of his life in the Holy Roman Empire.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
Generally speaking, unlike dictionary entries—which focus on linguistic information about words, such as their etymology, meaning, pronunciation, use, and grammatical forms—encyclopedia articles focus on factual information concerning the subject named in the article's title.
Lexicography, closely linked with the domain of semantics, is the science of mapping the words into an encyclopedia or a dictionary.

Compendium

compendiacollectionscompendious
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or discipline.
In most cases the body of knowledge will concern a specific field of human interest or endeavour (for example: hydrogeology, logology, ichthyology, phytosociology or myrmecology), while a general encyclopedia can be referred to as a compendium of all human knowledge.

Dictionary of the Middle Ages

The Dictionary of the Middle Ages
Some works entitled "dictionaries" are actually similar to encyclopedias, especially those concerned with a particular field (such as the Dictionary of the Middle Ages, the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, and Black's Law Dictionary).
The Dictionary of the Middle Ages is a 13-volume encyclopedia of the Middle Ages published by the American Council of Learned Societies between 1982 and 1989.

François Rabelais

RabelaisRabelaisianFrancois Rabelais
More commonly, François Rabelais is cited for his use of the term in Pantagruel (1532).
This first book, critical of the existing monastic and educational system, contains the first known occurrence in French of the words encyclopédie, caballe, progrès and utopie among others.

Great Soviet Encyclopedia

The Great Soviet EncyclopediaGreat Soviet EncyclopaediaBig Soviet Encyclopedia
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet Union from 1926 to 1990.

Encyclopaedia Judaica

Encyclopedia JudaicaThe Encyclopaedia JudaicaEncyclopaedia Judaica. Volume 4: Blu-Cof
The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 22-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism.

American and British English spelling differences

spelling differencesorsee spelling differences
Today in English, the word is most commonly spelled encyclopedia, though encyclopaedia (from encyclopædia) is also used in Britain.
Examples (with non-American letter in bold): aeon, anaemia, anaesthesia, caecum, caesium, coeliac, diarrhoea, encyclopaedia, faeces, foetal, gynaecology, haemoglobin, haemophilia, leukaemia, oesophagus, oestrogen, orthopaedic, palaeontology, paediatric, paedophile.

Etymology

etymologicaletymologicallyetymologies
Generally speaking, unlike dictionary entries—which focus on linguistic information about words, such as their etymology, meaning, pronunciation, use, and grammatical forms—encyclopedia articles focus on factual information concerning the subject named in the article's title.
Etymologicum genuinum is a grammatical encyclopedia edited at Constantinople in the ninth century, one of several similar Byzantine works.

Encarta

Microsoft EncartaMSN EncartaEncarta Encyclopedia
Microsoft's Encarta, published between 1993 and 2009, was a landmark example as it had no printed equivalent.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.

Pliny the Elder

PlinyPlin.Plinius
One of the earliest encyclopedic works to have survived to modern times is the Naturalis Historiae of Pliny the Elder, a Roman statesman living in the first century AD.
Pliny wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia (Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias.

Etymologiae

EtymologiesOriginesencyclopedia
Isidore of Seville, one of the greatest scholars of the early Middle Ages, is widely recognized for writing the first encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, the Etymologiae (The Etymologies) or Origines (around 630), in which he compiled a sizable portion of the learning available at his time, both ancient and contemporary.
Etymologiae (Latin for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c.

Article (publishing)

articlesarticlecover story
Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries that are often arranged alphabetically by article name and sometimes by thematic categories.

Suda

SuidasSoudaSuida
The encyclopedia of Suda, a massive 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia, had 30 000 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, and often derived from medieval Christian compilers.
The Suda or Souda (Suidae Lexicon) is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas or Souidas .

Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity

Epistles of the Brethren of PurityEncyclopedia of the Brethren of SincerityEncyclopedia
Around year 960, the Brethren of Purity of Basra were engaged in their Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity.
The Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity also variously known as the Epistles of the Brethren of Sincerity, Epistles of the Brethren of Purity and Epistles of the Brethren of Purity and Loyal Friends was a large encyclopedia in 52 treatises (rasā'il) written by the mysterious Brethren of Purity of Basra, Iraq sometime in the second half of the 10th century CE (or possibly later, in the 11th century).

Wikipedia

wikipedia.orgMobile Wikipediaparody of Wikipedia
In 2001, Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger launched Wikipedia, a multilingual, open-source, free online encyclopedia supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation.
According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-like.

Expert

expertiseexpertsspecialist
Historically, both encyclopedias and dictionaries have been researched and written by well-educated, well-informed content experts, but they are significantly different in structure.
Hartelius further suggests that Wikipedia's dialogic construction of expertise illustrates both the instrumental and the constitutive dimensions of rhetoric; instrumentally as it challenges traditional encyclopedias and constitutively as a function of its knowledge production.

Everything2

Everything EngineEverything2.comEverything 2
Although Everything2 does not seek to become an encyclopedia, a substantial amount of factual content has been submitted to Everything2.

Yongle Encyclopedia

Yongle DadianYong Le Da DianYongle Da Dian
The largest of which is the Yongle Encyclopedia; it was completed in 1408 and consisted of almost 23,000 folio volumes in manuscript form.
The Yongle Encyclopedia or Yongle Dadian is a partially lost Chinese leishu encyclopedia commissioned by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming dynasty in 1403 and completed by 1408.

Bartholomeus Anglicus

Bartholomaeus AnglicusDe proprietatibus rerumBartholome
In late medieval Europe, several authors had the ambition of compiling the sum of human knowledge in a certain field or overall, for example Bartholomew of England, Vincent of Beauvais, Radulfus Ardens, Sydrac, Brunetto Latini, Giovanni da Sangiminiano, Pierre Bersuire.
He was the author of the compendium De proprietatibus rerum ("On the Properties of Things"), dated at 1240, an early forerunner of the encyclopedia and a widely-cited book in the Middle Ages.

Vincent of Beauvais

Vincent de BeauvaisSpeculum historialeSpeculum Maius
In late medieval Europe, several authors had the ambition of compiling the sum of human knowledge in a certain field or overall, for example Bartholomew of England, Vincent of Beauvais, Radulfus Ardens, Sydrac, Brunetto Latini, Giovanni da Sangiminiano, Pierre Bersuire.
Often retroactively described as an encyclopedia or as a florilegium, his text exists as a core example of brief compendiums produced in medieval Europe.

Universal history

universal chronicleuniversal historianuniversal histories
Also notable are works of universal history (or sociology) from Asharites, al-Tabri, al-Masudi, Tabari's History of the Prophets and Kings, Ibn Rustah, al-Athir, and Ibn Khaldun, whose Muqadimmah contains cautions regarding trust in written records that remain wholly applicable today.
Some universal chronicles bear a more or less encyclopedic character, with many digressions on non-historical subjects, as is the case with the Chronicon of Helinand of Froidmont.