End of World War II in Europe

1945end of the war in Europeend of the warWar endedend of World War IIGerman surrenderendliberation of Europedefeat of Nazi Germanyended
The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.wikipedia
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European theatre of World War II

European TheaterEuropean TheatreEuropean Theater of World War II
The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.
The European theatre of World War II was an area of heavy fighting across Europe, starting with Germany's invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939 and ending with the United States, the United Kingdom and France conquering most of Western Europe, the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe and Germany’s unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).

The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
Liberation of Nazi concentration camps and refugees: Allied forces began to discover the scale of the Holocaust.
The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.
The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.

Battle of Berlin

Berlin OffensiveBerlinBattle for Berlin
Hitler's death: On 30 April, as the Battle of Nuremberg and the Battle of Hamburg ended with American and British occupation, in addition to the Battle of Berlin raging above him with the Soviets surrounding the city, along with his escape route cut off by the Americans, realizing that all was lost and not wishing to suffer Mussolini's fate, German dictator Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his Führerbunker along with Eva Braun, his long-term partner whom he had married less than 40 hours before their joint suicide.
The city's garrison surrendered on 2 May but fighting continued to the north-west, west, and south-west of the city until the end of the war in Europe on 8 May (9 May in the Soviet Union) as some German units fought westward so that they could surrender to the Western Allies rather than to the Soviets.

Helmuth Weidling

Helmut WeidlingWeidlingGeneral Weidling
On that date, General der Artillerie Helmuth Weidling, the commander of the Berlin Defense Area, unconditionally surrendered the city to General Vasily Chuikov of the Red Army.
He was the last commander of the Berlin Defence Area during the Battle of Berlin, and led the defence of the city against Soviet forces, finally surrendering just before the end of World War II in Europe.

21st Army (Wehrmacht)

21st ArmyXXI Armycommander in chief of the German forces in Norway
On the same day the officers commanding the two armies of Army Group Vistula north of Berlin, (General Kurt von Tippelskirch, commander of the German 21st Army and General Hasso von Manteuffel, commander of Third Panzer Army), surrendered to the Western Allies.
On 27 April 1945, towards the end of the war in Europe, the 21st Army was formed from Headquarters, 4th Army as part of Army Group Vistula (Heeresgruppe Weichsel) and fought until 8 May 1945.

Prague Offensive

PragueCzechoslovakiadrive on Prague
The following day, the Soviets launched the Prague Offensive.
Fought concurrently with the Prague uprising, the offensive was one of the last engagements of World War II in Europe and continued after Nazi Germany's unconditional capitulation on 8 May.

Prague uprising

Czech partisansliberation of Praguecitizens uprising
Central Europe: On 5 May 1945, the Czech resistance started the Prague uprising.
On 5 May 1945, in the last moments of the war in Europe, Czech citizens spontaneously attacked the German occupiers and Czech resistance leaders emerged from hiding to join the uprising.

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
Hermann Göring's surrender: On 6 May, Reichsmarshall and Hitler's second-in-command, Hermann Göring, surrendered to General Carl Spaatz, who was the commander of the operational United States Air Forces in Europe, along with his wife and daughter at the Germany-Austria border.
After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American, British, and French occupation zones, and East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.

Siege of Breslau

Festung BreslauBreslaufortress Breslau
German forces in Breslau surrender: At 18:00 on 6 May, General Hermann Niehoff, the commandant of Breslau, a 'fortress' city surrounded and besieged for months, surrendered to the Soviets. Jodl and Keitel surrender all German armed forces unconditionally: Thirty minutes after the fall of "Festung Breslau" (Fortress Breslau), General Alfred Jodl arrived in Reims and, following Dönitz's instructions, offered to surrender all forces fighting the Western Allies.
The Siege of Breslau, also known as the Battle of Breslau, was a three-month-long siege of the city of Breslau in Lower Silesia, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), lasting to the end of World War II in Europe.

German Instrument of Surrender

surrender of GermanyGerman surrenderDisestablishment
The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.
The German Instrument of Surrender was the legal document which effected the extinction of Nazi Germany and ended World War II in Europe.

Karl Dönitz

Admiral DönitzDönitzKarl Donitz
Hitler appointed his successors as follows; Großadmiral Karl Dönitz as the new Reichspräsident ("President of Germany") and Joseph Goebbels as the new Reichskanzler (Chancellor of Germany).
In the final days of the war, after Hitler had taken refuge in the Führerbunker beneath the Reich Chancellery garden in Berlin, Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring was considered the obvious successor to Hitler, followed by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler.

Army Group Vistula

Army Group WeichselArmy Group ''VistulaGerman Army Group Vistula
On the same day the officers commanding the two armies of Army Group Vistula north of Berlin, (General Kurt von Tippelskirch, commander of the German 21st Army and General Hasso von Manteuffel, commander of Third Panzer Army), surrendered to the Western Allies.
Under the command of Heinrici, parts of the army group fought through the Battle of Berlin and Battle of Halbe, with some of its elements not surrendering until the end of the war in Europe on 8 May 1945.

Army Group Centre

Army Group CenterHeeresgruppe MitteCentre
The largest contingent was Army Group Centre under the command of Generalfeldmarschall Ferdinand Schörner who had been promoted to Commander-in-Chief of the Army on 30 April in Hitler's last will and testament.
The latter formation retained its name until the end of the war in Europe.

Potsdam Agreement

PotsdamTreaty of Potsdamagreed
The Potsdam Agreement was signed on 12 August 1945.
After the end of World War II in Europe (1939–45), and the decisions of the earlier Tehran, Casablanca and Yalta Conferences, the Allies by the Berlin Declaration of June 5, 1945, had assumed supreme authority over Germany.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight EisenhowerEisenhowerPresident Eisenhower
This was exactly the same negotiating position that von Friedeburg had initially made to Montgomery, and like Montgomery the Supreme Allied Commander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, threatened to break off all negotiations unless the Germans agreed to a complete unconditional surrender to all the Allies on all fronts.
From then until the end of the war in Europe on May 8, 1945, Eisenhower, through SHAEF, commanded all Allied forces, and through his command of ETOUSA had administrative command of all U.S. forces on the Western Front north of the Alps.

Allied Control Council

Four PowersAlliedAllied Control Commission
Allied Control Council created to effect the Allies assumed supreme authority over Germany, specifically to implement their assumed joint authority over Germany.
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was the governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.

Marshall Plan

Marshall AidEuropean Recovery ProgramThe Marshall Plan
In 1947, JCS 1067 was replaced by JCS 1779 that aimed at restoring a "stable and productive Germany"; this led to the introduction of the Marshall Plan.
By the end of World War II, much of Europe was devastated.

President of Germany (1919–1945)

PresidentPresident of GermanyReichspräsident
Hitler appointed his successors as follows; Großadmiral Karl Dönitz as the new Reichspräsident ("President of Germany") and Joseph Goebbels as the new Reichskanzler (Chancellor of Germany).
Goebbels committed suicide shortly after Hitler and within days Dönitz ordered Germany's military (not political) surrender on the 7 May, which ended the war in Europe.

Supreme Allied Commander

Supreme CommanderSupreme Allied CommandAllied Supreme Commander
This was exactly the same negotiating position that von Friedeburg had initially made to Montgomery, and like Montgomery the Supreme Allied Commander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, threatened to break off all negotiations unless the Germans agreed to a complete unconditional surrender to all the Allies on all fronts.
Eisenhower then served as Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force (SCAEF) in the European theatre, starting in December 1943 with the creation of the command to execute Operation Overlord and ending in July 1945 shortly after the End of World War II in Europe.

Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany

Two Plus Four AgreementTwo Plus Four TreatyTwo Plus Four
Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany: Under the terms of this peace treaty, the Four Powers renounced all rights they formerly held in Germany, including Berlin.
The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland), or the Two Plus Four Agreement (Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty), was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous Two), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Alfred Jodl

JodlColonel General Alfred JodlGen. Jodl
Jodl and Keitel surrender all German armed forces unconditionally: Thirty minutes after the fall of "Festung Breslau" (Fortress Breslau), General Alfred Jodl arrived in Reims and, following Dönitz's instructions, offered to surrender all forces fighting the Western Allies.
At the end of World War II in Europe, Jodl signed the German Instrument of Surrender on 7 May 1945 in Reims as the representative of Dönitz.

Battle of Slivice

The Battle of Slivice was the last large World War II battle in the area of the Czech lands.

Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)

expelledexpulsion of Germans after World War IIexpulsion of Germans
In connection with this, the leaders of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union planned the new postwar German government, resettled war territory boundaries, de facto annexed a quarter of pre-war Germany situated east of the Oder-Neisse line, and mandated and organized the expulsion of the millions of Germans who remained in the annexed territories and elsewhere in the east.
The Second World War ended in Europe with Germany's defeat in May 1945.

Lüneburg Heath

Lüneburger HeideLüneberg HeathHeath
German forces in North West Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands surrender: On 4 May 1945, the British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery took the unconditional military surrender at Lüneburg from Generaladmiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg, and General Eberhard Kinzel, of all German forces "in Holland [sic], in northwest Germany including the Frisian Islands and Heligoland and all other islands, in Schleswig-Holstein, and in Denmark… includ[ing] all naval ships in these areas", at the Timeloberg on Lüneburg Heath; an area between the cities of Hamburg, Hanover and Bremen.
The heath was the scene of the unconditional surrender of German forces in the Netherlands, north west Germany, including all islands, Denmark and all naval ships in those areas to the Allies under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, on 4 May 1945, at the end of the Second World War in Europe.