End of the Han dynasty

end of the Eastern Han dynastyendlate Eastern Han dynastypreludefall of the Han dynastycollapse of the Han dynastyfinal years of the dynastyfinal years of the Eastern Han dynastyCao Cao Unification of the Northchaos
The end of the Han dynasty refers to the period of Chinese history from 189 to 220 AD, which roughly coincides with the tumultuous reign of the Han dynasty's last ruler, Emperor Xian.wikipedia
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Cao Cao

Cho Choambitious ruler of Chinaan imperial chancellor
Eventually, one of those warlords, Cao Cao, was able to gradually reunify the empire, ostensibly under Emperor Xian's rule, but the empire was actually controlled by Cao Cao himself. Cao Cao's efforts to completely reunite the Han dynasty were rebuffed at the Battle of Red Cliffs in 208 / 209, when his armies were defeated by the allied forces of Sun Quan and Liu Bei.
155 – 15 March 220), courtesy name Mengde, was a warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty.

Battle of Red Cliffs

Battle of ChibiRed CliffsBattle of Chi Bi
Cao Cao's efforts to completely reunite the Han dynasty were rebuffed at the Battle of Red Cliffs in 208 / 209, when his armies were defeated by the allied forces of Sun Quan and Liu Bei.
The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, was a decisive battle fought at the end of the Han dynasty, about twelve years prior to the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history.

Han dynasty

Eastern Han dynastyHanWestern Han dynasty
The end of the Han dynasty refers to the period of Chinese history from 189 to 220 AD, which roughly coincides with the tumultuous reign of the Han dynasty's last ruler, Emperor Xian. The period from the fall of the Han dynasty in 220 to the partial reunification of China under the Jin dynasty in 265 was known as the Three Kingdoms era in Chinese history.
168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire.

Cao Wei

WeiKingdom of WeiWei Dynasty
Cao Pi became the emperor of a new state, Cao Wei.
With its capital initially located at Xuchang, and thereafter Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations laid by his father, Cao Cao, towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty.

Eastern Wu

WuKingdom of WuWu Kingdom
A year later, in response to Cao Pi's usurpation of the Han throne, Liu Bei declared himself emperor of Shu Han; and in 229, Sun Quan followed suit, declaring himself emperor of Eastern Wu.
Towards the end of the Han dynasty, Sun Ce, the eldest son of the warlord Sun Jian, and his followers borrowed troops from the warlord Yuan Shu and embarked on a series of military conquests in the Jiangdong and Wu regions between 194 and 199, seizing several territories previously occupied by warlords such as Liu Yao, Yan Baihu and Wang Lang.

Yuan Shao

He Jin and Yuan Shao plotted to exterminate all the Ten Attendants, a group of ten influential eunuch officials in the court, but Empress Dowager He disapproved of their plan.
He occupied the northern territories of China during the civil wars that occurred towards the end of the Han dynasty.

Emperor Ling of Han

Emperor LingLingLiu Hong
Towards the end of the reign of Emperor Ling of Han (r.
(See End of the Han dynasty.) The Han dynasty ended in 220 when Emperor Ling's son, Emperor Xian, abdicated his throne – an event leading to the start of the Three Kingdoms period in China.

He Jin

Empress He, now empress dowager, became regent to the young emperor, while her older brother, General-in-Chief He Jin, became the most powerful official in the imperial court.
The subsequent breakdown of central command brought forth the beginning of massive civil wars which led to the end of the Han dynasty and the start of the Three Kingdoms period.

Kings of the Han dynasty

Kingprince of the Han dynastyprince
Soon, a number of officials started having thoughts of controlling and ruling over their own territories like kings.
After that, there were no kings outside the royal clan until the end of the Han dynasty, when Cao Cao styled himself King of Wei in AD 216.

Ten Attendants

Zhang Rangeunuch factionZhao Zhong
He Jin and Yuan Shao plotted to exterminate all the Ten Attendants, a group of ten influential eunuch officials in the court, but Empress Dowager He disapproved of their plan.

Tuntian

đồn điềnagricultural coloniesagricultural garrisons
As suggested by Zao Zhi, Cao Cao implemented a new tuntian policy to promote agricultural production, in which soldiers were sent to grow crops, and the harvest would be shared between the military and civilian population.
It was extensively used towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 CE) when the warlord Cao Cao was the de facto head of the Han central government.

Campaign against Yuan Shu

his defeatblock Yuan Shu from getting throughcame under attack
That year, Yuan Shu declared himself "Son of Heaven" in Shouchun (壽春; present-day Shou County, Anhui), an act perceived as treason against the Han dynasty government, prompting other warlords to use that as an excuse to attack him (see Campaign against Yuan Shu).
The campaign against Yuan Shu was a punitive expedition that took place between 197 and 199 in the late Eastern Han dynasty.

Cao Ang

In this battle, Cao Cao's eldest son Cao Ang, nephew Cao Anmin, and bodyguard Dian Wei were killed, and Cao Cao himself narrowly escaped from death.
undefined 177 – February or March 197), courtesy name Zixiu, was the eldest son of Cao Cao, a warlord who rose to power towards the end of the Han dynasty and laid the foundation of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China.

Sun Ce's conquests in Jiangdong

a series of conquestsconquestsconquered
Sun Ce, son of Sun Jian, who had conquered several territories in Jiangdong between 194 and 199, ended his alliance with Yuan Shu and became an independent warlord.
Sun Ce's conquests in Jiangdong were a series of military campaigns by the warlord Sun Ce to conquer territories in the Jiangdong and Wu regions from 194 to 199 towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty.

Battle of Xiapi

Xiapidefeatslaid a siege on Lü Bu's base in Xiapi
Later that year, Cao Cao joined forces with Liu Bei to attack Lü Bu, defeating him at the Battle of Xiapi.
The Battle of Xiapi was fought between the forces of Lü Bu against the allied armies of Cao Cao and Liu Bei from the winter of 198 to 7 February 199 towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty in China.

Guan Yu

GuandiKwan TaiGuan Gong
Liu Bei's general Guan Yu surrendered to Cao Cao and temporarily served under Cao.
Guan Yu played a significant role in the events leading up to the end of the Han dynasty and the establishment of Liu Bei's state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period.

Liu Biao

Lady CaiLady ChoiLau Biu
Around this time, Gao Gan also rebelled against Cao Cao, but was defeated by 206 and killed while attempting to flee south to join Liu Biao.
Jing Province continued to be a flash point throughout the remaining years of the Han dynasty and well into the Three Kingdoms period, due to its strategic position between all three warring factions, with multiple battles and campaigns fought for control of the province.

Yellow Turban Rebellion

Yellow Turban rebelsWhite Wave BanditsYellow Turbans
During this period, the country was thrown into turmoil by the Yellow Turban Rebellion (184–205).

Battle of Nanpi

attacked Yuan Tan at NanpiBohaicapturing Yuan Tan's last stronghold at Nanpi
Cao Cao now accused Yuan Tan of breaching the trust in the alliance so he turned east to attack him, capturing Yuan Tan's last stronghold at Nanpi (南皮; in present-day Cangzhou, Hebei) and killing Yuan.
The Battle of Nanpi happened in the first month of 205, during the period known as the end of the Han Dynasty.

Three Kingdoms

Three Kingdoms periodThree Kingdoms eraThe Three Kingdoms
The period from the fall of the Han dynasty in 220 to the partial reunification of China under the Jin dynasty in 265 was known as the Three Kingdoms era in Chinese history.

Zhang He

Gao LanZhang Han
Instead of sending reinforcements to Wuchao, Yuan Shao sent Zhang He and Gao Lan to attack Cao Cao's camp, but was unsuccessful.
Towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, when the Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out, he responded to the Han government's call for volunteers to serve in the army and help to suppress the revolt.

Zhang Zhao

Chang ChaoZhang Fen
In view of Cao Cao's overwhelming forces, many of Sun Quan's followers, including Zhang Zhao, strongly advocated surrender.
Born in the late Eastern Han dynasty, Zhang Zhao started his career as a scholar in his native Xu Province before the chaos towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty forced him to flee south to the Jiangdong (or Wu) region for shelter.

Lu Su

Lou Suk
In Jiangdong, Sun Quan felt threatened by Cao Cao's approaching army and sent Lu Su to discuss forming an alliance with Liu Bei and Liu Qi against Cao Cao.
Towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, when chaos broke out throughout China due to the Yellow Turban Rebellion and Dong Zhuo's tyranny, Lu Su sold his family's lands and properties and used the money to help the poor.

Battle of Tong Pass (211)

Battle of Tong PassBattle of Tong GateHou Xuan
A coalition of forces from west of Hangu Pass, led by Ma Chao and Han Sui, were defeated by Cao Cao at the Battle of Tong Pass in 211, and their territories were annexed by Cao over the next few years.
Towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, the warlord Ma Teng commanded a sizable army in the northwestern frontiers of China that threatened the North China Plain under the dominion of Cao Cao.

Hanzhong Campaign

a campaignHanzhongcampaign
In 217, Liu Bei started a campaign to seize Hanzhong from Cao Cao.
The campaign took place between 217 and 219 during the prelude to the Three Kingdoms period.