Endemism

endemicendemic speciesendemicsfound onlynativeindigenousEndemism in birdsendemiteendemic toisland endemic
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.wikipedia
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Cosmopolitan distribution

cosmopolitancosmopolitan speciessubcosmopolitan
The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution.
The opposite extreme is endemism.

Fynbos

Lowland fynbos and renosterveldMontane fynbos and renosterveldfynbos biome
The orange-breasted sunbird is exclusively found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa.
In fields related to biogeography, fynbos is known for its exceptional degree of biodiversity and endemism, consisting about 80% (8,500 fynbos) species of the Cape floral kingdom where nearly 6,000 of them are endemic.

Orange-breasted sunbird

AnthobaphesNectarinia violacea
The orange-breasted sunbird is exclusively found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa.
This sunbird is endemic to the fynbos habitat of southwestern South Africa.

Glacier bear

The glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska.
The glacier bear (Ursus americanus emmonsii), sometimes referred to as the blue bear, is a subspecies of American black bear with silver-blue or gray hair endemic to Southeast Alaska.

Paleoendemism

paleoendemicpalaeoendemic
There are two subcategories of endemism: paleoendemism and neoendemism.
Paleoendemism along with neoendemism is one of two sub-categories of endemism.

Endemism in the Hawaiian Islands

endemicendemic speciesendemic species on the Hawaiian island chain
Endemic types or species are especially likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, and Socotra; they can equally develop in biologically isolated areas such as the highlands of Ethiopia, or large bodies of water far from other lakes, like Lake Baikal.
As a consequence, Hawai'i is home to a large number of endemic species.

Neoendemism

neoendemic
There are two subcategories of endemism: paleoendemism and neoendemism.
Neoendemism is one of two sub-categories of endemism, the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location.

Habitat

habitatsmicrohabitatnatural habitat
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
About 350 species of organism, dominated by molluscs, polychaete worms and crustaceans, had been discovered around hydrothermal vents by the end of the twentieth century, most of them being new to science and endemic to these habitats.

Galápagos Islands

Galapagos IslandsGalapagosGalápagos
Endemic types or species are especially likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, and Socotra; they can equally develop in biologically isolated areas such as the highlands of Ethiopia, or large bodies of water far from other lakes, like Lake Baikal.
The islands are known for their large number of endemic species and were studied by Charles Darwin during the second voyage of HMS Beagle.

South Africa

South AfricanRepublic of South AfricaRSA
The orange-breasted sunbird is exclusively found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa.
South Africa houses many endemic species, among them the critically endangered riverine rabbit (Bunolagus monticullaris) in the Karoo.

Socotra

Socotra IslandSoqotraSocotra Archipelago
Endemic types or species are especially likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, and Socotra; they can equally develop in biologically isolated areas such as the highlands of Ethiopia, or large bodies of water far from other lakes, like Lake Baikal.
The island is very isolated, home to a high number of endemic species; up to a third of its plant life is endemic.

Indigenous (ecology)

nativeindigenousnative species
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
An indigenous species in a location is not necessarily also endemic to that location.

Hydrangea hirta

Hydrangea hirta is an example of an endemic species found in Japan.
Hydrangea hirta that is commonly known as the "nettle-leaved hydrangea" is an endemic species that is native to Japan with ranges from its native country to East Asia.

Lake Baikal

BaikalBaikal LakeLake Baykal
Endemic types or species are especially likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, and Socotra; they can equally develop in biologically isolated areas such as the highlands of Ethiopia, or large bodies of water far from other lakes, like Lake Baikal.
More than 80% of the animals are endemic.

Juniperus bermudiana

Bermuda cedarBermudan cedarpencil cedar
There were millions of both Bermuda petrels and Bermuda cedars in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century.
Juniperus bermudiana is a species of juniper endemic to Bermuda.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Endemic types or species are especially likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, and Socotra; they can equally develop in biologically isolated areas such as the highlands of Ethiopia, or large bodies of water far from other lakes, like Lake Baikal.
It also has many endemic species, notably the gelada, the walia ibex and the Ethiopian wolf ("Simien fox").

List of ecoregions with high endemism

highly endemistic ecosystems
Principal causes of habitat degradation and loss in highly endemistic ecosystems include agriculture, urban growth, surface mining, mineral extraction, logging operations, and slash-and-burn agriculture.
According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the following ecoregions have the highest percentage of endemic plants.

Bermuda

BermudianBermudasBermuda Islands
There were millions of both Bermuda petrels and Bermuda cedars in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century.
Only 165 of the island's current 1,000 vascular plant species are considered native; fifteen of those, including the eponymous cedar, are endemic.

Ecology

ecologicalecologistecologically
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

Species

specificspecific epithetspecific name
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

New Latin

Neo-LatinModern LatinLatin
The word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native".

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
The word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native".

Southeast Alaska

Alaska PanhandleAlaskan PanhandleSoutheast
The glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska.

Jurisdiction

jurisdictionsjurisdictionallegal jurisdiction
Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or actively hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another.

Polyploidy

tetraploidpolyploidtriploid
Neoendemism refers to species that have recently arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants.