Endocrine system

endocrineendocrinologicalendocrine organendocrine signalingovarian hormonesendocrine organsendocrinalendocrine cellendocrine cellshormonal system
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system comprising feedback loops of hormones released by internal glands of an organism directly into the circulatory system, regulating distant target organs.wikipedia
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Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system comprising feedback loops of hormones released by internal glands of an organism directly into the circulatory system, regulating distant target organs.
The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system.

Endocrine gland

endocrine glandsductless glandendocrine
In humans, the major endocrine glands are the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands.
Endocrine glands are ductless glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood.

Hypothalamus

hypothalamicanterior hypothalamushypothalamic hormones
In vertebrates, the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems. The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.
One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

Paracrine signaling

paracrineparacrine signallinglocal hormones
The endocrine system can be contrasted to both exocrine glands, which secrete hormones to the outside of the body using ducts and paracrine signalling between cells over a relatively short distance. The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell (autocrine or intracrine signalling) or nearby cells (paracrine signalling).
Signaling molecules known as paracrine factors diffuse over a relatively short distance (local action), as opposed to cell signaling by endocrine factors, hormones which travel considerably longer distances via the circulatory system; juxtacrine interactions; and autocrine signaling.

Eicosanoid

eicosanoidsarachidonic acid derivativesEicosanoid Metabolism
Hormones can consist of either amino acid complexes, steroids, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, or prostaglandins.
Eicosanoids may also act as endocrine agents to control the function of distant cells.

Human

humanshuman beinghuman beings
In humans, the major endocrine glands are the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands.
The most commonly defined body systems in humans are the nervous, the cardiovascular, the circulatory, the digestive, the endocrine, the immune, the integumentary, the lymphatic, the musculoskeletal, the reproductive, the respiratory, and the urinary system.

Prostaglandin

prostaglandinsprostoglandinprostaglandins a
Hormones can consist of either amino acid complexes, steroids, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, or prostaglandins.
Prostaglandins differ from endocrine hormones in that they are not produced at a specific site but in many places throughout the human body.

Renin–angiotensin system

renin–angiotensin–aldosterone systemrenin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemrenin angiotensin system
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS), or renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as systemic vascular resistance.

Pancreas

pancreaticexocrine pancreaspancreatic development
The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.
The pancreas is an organ of the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

Parathyroid gland

parathyroidparathyroid glandsparathyroids
The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.
Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck of humans and other tetrapods.

Anterior pituitary

anterior pituitary glandanterior lobeanterior lobe of the pituitary gland
* Anterior pituitary gland
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).

Internal medicine

internistGeneral Medicineinternists
Endocrinology is a branch of internal medicine.

Neuroendocrine cell

neuroendocrineneuroendocrine cellscell
The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are neuroendocrine organs.
In this way they bring about an integration between the nervous system and the endocrine system, a process known as neuroendocrine integration.

Posterior pituitary

posterior pituitary glandneurohypophysisHypothalamic–neurohypophyseal system
* Posterior pituitary gland
The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is part of the endocrine system.

Bone

cortical bonebone tissuecancellous bone
In addition to the specialized endocrine organs mentioned above, many other organs that are part of other body systems, including bone, kidney, liver, heart and gonads, have secondary endocrine functions.

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
In addition to the specialized endocrine organs mentioned above, many other organs that are part of other body systems, including bone, kidney, liver, heart and gonads, have secondary endocrine functions.
The kidney accomplishes these homeostatic functions both independently and in concert with other organs, particularly those of the endocrine system.

Organ (anatomy)

organorgansviscera
The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are neuroendocrine organs. Hormones are used to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities, such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood.
For instance, the nervous and endocrine system both operate via a shared organ, the hypothalamus.

Pituitary gland

pituitaryhypophysishypophysis cerebri
The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.
Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary are controlled by regulatory hormones released by parvocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamic capillaries leading to infundibular blood vessels, which in turn lead to a second capillary bed in the anterior pituitary.

Alpha cell

alpha cellsalphaglucagon-secreting cells
Alpha cells (more commonly alpha-cells or α-cells) are endocrine cells in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.

Pancreatic islets

islets of Langerhanspancreatic isletislet cell
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.

Autocrine signaling

autocrineautocrine signallingautocrine loop
The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell (autocrine or intracrine signalling) or nearby cells (paracrine signalling).
This can be contrasted with paracrine signaling, intracrine signaling, or classical endocrine signaling.

Sleep

sleepingsleep architectureasleep
Hormones are used to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities, such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood.
During sleep, most of the body's systems are in an anabolic state, helping to restore the immune, nervous, skeletal, and muscular systems; these are vital processes that maintain mood, memory, and cognitive function, and play a large role in the function of the endocrine and immune systems.

Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
In humans, the major endocrine glands are the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands. The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.

Endocrinology

endocrinologistendocrinologistsendocrinopathy
The study of the endocrine system and its disorders is known as endocrinology.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.

Peptide hormone

peptide hormonesprotein hormonepolypeptide hormone
Amino acid–based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via signal transduction pathways; steroid hormones, being lipid-soluble, move through the plasma membranes of target cells to act within their nuclei.
These hormones have an effect on the endocrine system of animals, including humans.