Endocytosis

endocytosedendocyticinternalizationinternalization pathwaysendocytoseendocytoticendoendocytic traffickingreceptor mediated endocytosiscellular uptake
Endocytosis is a cellular process in which substances are brought into the cell.wikipedia
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Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

vesiclesvesiclemembrane trafficking
The material to be internalized is surrounded by an area of cell membrane, which then buds off inside the cell to form a vesicle containing the ingested material.
Vesicles form naturally during the processes of secretion (exocytosis), uptake (endocytosis) and transport of materials within the plasma membrane.

Phagocytosis

phagocyticphagocytosedphagocytose
Endocytosis includes pinocytosis (cell drinking) and phagocytosis (cell eating). Endocytosis pathways can be subdivided into four categories: namely, receptor-mediated endocytosis (also known as clathrin-mediated endocytosis), caveolae, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis. Phagocytosis was discovered by Élie Metchnikoff in 1882.
It is one type of endocytosis.

Pinocytosis

macropinocytosispinocytoticpinocytotic vesicles
Endocytosis includes pinocytosis (cell drinking) and phagocytosis (cell eating). Endocytosis pathways can be subdivided into four categories: namely, receptor-mediated endocytosis (also known as clathrin-mediated endocytosis), caveolae, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis.
In cellular biology, pinocytosis, otherwise known as fluid endocytosis and bulk-phase pinocytosis, is a mode of endocytosis in which small particles suspended in extracellular fluid are brought into the cell through an invagination of the cell membrane, resulting in a suspension of the particles within a small vesicle inside the cell.

Christian de Duve

De DuveChristian DeDuveChristian Rene Marie Joseph de Duve
The term was proposed by De Duve in 1963.
In addition to peroxisome and lysosome, he invented the scientific names such as autophagy, endocytosis, and exocytosis in a single occasion.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Endocytosis is a cellular process in which substances are brought into the cell.
The cytoskeleton acts to organize and maintain the cell's shape; anchors organelles in place; helps during endocytosis, the uptake of external materials by a cell, and cytokinesis, the separation of daughter cells after cell division; and moves parts of the cell in processes of growth and mobility.

Clathrin

clathrin-coated vesiclesclathrin-coated vesicleclathrin cage
The major route for endocytosis in most cells, and the best-understood, is that mediated by the molecule clathrin.
The endocytosis and exocytosis of vesicles allows cells to communicate, to transfer nutrients, to import signaling receptors, to mediate an immune response after sampling the extracellular world, and to clean up the cell debris left by tissue inflammation.

Caveolin

caveolin-1caveolins
In molecular biology caveolins are a family of integral membrane proteins that are the principal components of caveolae membranes and involved in receptor-independent endocytosis.

ARHGAP26

GRAF1
Mechanistic insight into non-phagocytic, clathrin-independent endocytosis has been lacking, but a recent study has shown how Graf1 regulates a highly prevalent clathrin-independent endocytic pathway known as the CLIC/GEEC pathway.
The role of dynamin in the CLIC/GEEC pathway is controversial, but GRAF1 interacts strongly with this protein and acute inhibition of dynamin action abrogates CLIC/GEEC endocytosis.

Cholesterol

total cholesteroldietary cholesterolserum cholesterol
Cholesterol is essential for the structure and function of invaginated caveolae and clathrin-coated pits, including caveola-dependent and clathrin-dependent endocytosis.

Caveolae

Caveolacaveolincoated pits
Endocytosis pathways can be subdivided into four categories: namely, receptor-mediated endocytosis (also known as clathrin-mediated endocytosis), caveolae, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis.
They are also believed to play a role in mechanoprotection, mechanosensation, endocytosis, oncogenesis, and the uptake of pathogenic bacteria and certain viruses.

Endosome

endosomesendosomalmultivesicular bodies
Once the coat has been shed, the remaining vesicle fuses with endosomes and proceeds down the endocytic pathway.
It is an organelle of the endocytic membrane transport pathway originating from the trans Golgi network.

Eisosome

It was recently found that an eisosome serves as a portal of endocytosis in yeast.
Eisosomes ('eis' meaning into or portal and 'soma', meaning body) are large, heterodimeric, immobile protein complexes at the plasma membrane which mark the site of endocytosis in some eukaryotes, and were discovered in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 2006.

Lysosome

lysosomallysosomeslysosomal enzymes
Material from outside the cell is taken-up through endocytosis, while material from the inside of the cell is digested through autophagy.

LDL receptor

LDLRlow density lipoprotein receptorLDL-receptor
The best-understood receptors that are found concentrated in coated vesicles of mammalian cells are the LDL receptor (which removes LDL from circulating blood), the transferrin receptor (which brings ferric ions bound by transferrin into the cell) and certain hormone receptors (such as that for EGF).
The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich LDL.

Dynamin

dynamin idynamin iidynamin iii
The actual budding-in process, whereby a pit is converted to a vesicle, is carried out by clathrin assisted by a set of cytoplasmic proteins, which includes dynamin and adaptors such as adaptin.
Dynamin is a GTPase responsible for endocytosis in the eukaryotic cell.

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

clathrin-mediated endocytosisreceptor internalizationclathrin-dependent endocytosis
Endocytosis pathways can be subdivided into four categories: namely, receptor-mediated endocytosis (also known as clathrin-mediated endocytosis), caveolae, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis.

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
The material to be internalized is surrounded by an area of cell membrane, which then buds off inside the cell to form a vesicle containing the ingested material.
3. Endocytosis: Endocytosis is the process in which cells absorb molecules by engulfing them.

AP2 adaptor complex

AP2 adaptorsAP2AP-2
AP2 adaptors are multisubunit complexes that perform this function at the plasma membrane.
The AP2 adaptor complex is a multimeric protein that works on the cell membrane to internalize cargo in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

Exocytosis

releaseneurotransmitter releaseexocytotic
Exocytosis and its counterpart, endocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic portion of the cell membrane by passive means.

Cytosol

cytosolichyaloplasmintracellular fluid
Molecules taken into the cell by endocytosis or on their way to be secreted can also be transported through the cytosol inside vesicles, which are small spheres of lipids that are moved along the cytoskeleton by motor proteins.

Vacuole

vacuolesvacuolarvacuolated
In animal cells, vacuoles perform mostly subordinate roles, assisting in larger processes of exocytosis and endocytosis.

Clathrin adaptor protein

adaptinClathrin adaptor proteinsadaptor proteins
The actual budding-in process, whereby a pit is converted to a vesicle, is carried out by clathrin assisted by a set of cytoplasmic proteins, which includes dynamin and adaptors such as adaptin.
AP2 adaptor complex associates with the plasma membrane and is responsible for endocytosis.

Active transport

cotransportco-transportsecondary active transport
Endocytosis and exocytosis are both forms of bulk transport that move materials into and out of cells, respectively, via vesicles.

Élie Metchnikoff

Ilya Ilyich MechnikovIlya MechnikovElie Metchnikoff
Phagocytosis was discovered by Élie Metchnikoff in 1882.