Endometrial cancer

endometrialendometrial carcinomacancerendometrial adenocarcinomaendometrial neoplasmscancer of the endometriumcancer of the uterusCarcinoma of the uterusEndometrial adenocarcinomasEndometrioid adenocarcinoma
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).wikipedia
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Uterine cancer

uterineuteruscancer of the uterus
Endometrial cancer is sometimes loosely referred to as "uterine cancer", although it is distinct from other forms of uterine cancer such as cervical cancer, uterine sarcoma, and trophoblastic disease.
Endometrial cancer forms from the lining of the uterus and uterine sarcoma forms from the muscles or support tissue of the uterus.

Ovarian cancer

ovarianovarian carcinomaovary
This makes it the third most common cause of death in cancers which only affect women, behind ovarian and cervical cancer.
A strong family history of endometrial cancer, colon cancer, or other gastrointestinal cancers may indicate the presence of a syndrome known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (also known as Lynch syndrome), which confers a higher risk for developing a number of cancers, including ovarian cancer.

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

Lynch syndromeHNPCChereditary non-polyposis colon cancer
Lynch syndrome, an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that mainly causes colorectal cancer, also causes endometrial cancer, especially before menopause.
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that is associated with a high risk of colon cancer as well as other cancers including endometrial cancer (second most common), ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

PCOSPolycystic Ovarian Syndromepolycystic ovaries
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which also causes irregular or no ovulation, is associated with higher rates of endometrial cancer for the same reasons as obesity.
Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer.

Endometrial biopsy

endometrial biopsiesPipelle
Endometrial cancer is commonly diagnosed by endometrial biopsy or by taking samples during a procedure known as dilation and curettage.

Hormone replacement therapy

menopausal hormone therapyhormone therapyestrogen replacement therapy
Estrogen replacement therapy during menopause when not balanced (or "opposed") with progestin is another risk factor.
Unopposed estrogen therapy promotes endometrial thickening and can increase the risk of cancer, while progestogen reduces this risk.

Pap test

Pap smearPap smearsPapanicolaou smear
A pap smear is not typically sufficient to show endometrial cancer.
Those with a history of endometrial cancer should discontinue routine Pap tests after hysterectomy.

Tamoxifen

NolvadexTamoxifen citratehydroxytamoxifen
Risk factors for endometrial cancer include obesity, diabetes mellitus, breast cancer, use of tamoxifen, never having had a child, late menopause, high levels of estrogen, and increasing age.
Even though it is an antagonist in breast tissue it acts as partial agonist on the endometrium and has been linked to endometrial cancer in some women.

Vaginal bleeding

uterine bleedingwithdrawal bleedingabnormal vaginal bleeding
The first sign is most often vaginal bleeding not associated with a menstrual period.
While endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer occur most commonly among post-menopausal women, most women with endometrial cancer have abnormal bleeding, and thus the diagnosis must be considered in women during the reproductive years.

Progestin

progestinsprogestogen
Estrogen replacement therapy during menopause when not balanced (or "opposed") with progestin is another risk factor.
Progestins are commonly used as a component of menopausal hormone therapy in women to prevent endometrial hyperplasia and increased risk of endometrial cancer from unopposed estrogen therapy.

Uterus

wombuterineuteri
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Risk factors for endometrial cancer include obesity, diabetes mellitus, breast cancer, use of tamoxifen, never having had a child, late menopause, high levels of estrogen, and increasing age.

Combined oral contraceptive pill

birth control pillthe pillbirth control pills
Progestin is present in the combined oral contraceptive pill and the hormonal intrauterine device (IUD).
People with known or suspected breast cancer, endometrial cancer, or unexplained uterine bleeding should also not take COCPs to avoid health risks.

Beta-catenin

β-cateninCTNNB1B-catenin
CTNNB1 (beta-catenin; a transcription gene) mutations are found in 14–44% of endometrial cancers and may indicate a good prognosis, but the data is unclear.
Mutations and overexpression of β-catenin are associated with many cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung cancer, malignant breast tumors, ovarian and endometrial cancer.

Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia

Pre-cancerous endometrial hyperplasias are also referred to as endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia.
Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) is a premalignant lesion of the uterine lining that predisposes to endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma.

MSH6

Other genes mutated in Lynch syndrome include MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, which are also mismatch repair genes.
hMSH6 mutations have also been linked to endometrial cancer and the development of endometrial carcinomas.

Raloxifene

Evistaraloxifen
Raloxifene, a similar drug, did not raise the risk of endometrial cancer.
Raloxifene does not cause breast tenderness, endometrial hyperplasia, menstrual bleeding, or endometrial cancer.

Breast cancer

breastbreast carcinomabreast cancers
Risk factors for endometrial cancer include obesity, diabetes mellitus, breast cancer, use of tamoxifen, never having had a child, late menopause, high levels of estrogen, and increasing age.
The selective estrogen receptor modulators (such as tamoxifen) reduce the risk of breast cancer but increase the risk of thromboembolism and endometrial cancer.

Endometrium

endometrialuterine lininglining of the uterus
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).
Historically, this change was diagnosed as endometrial cancer and it is important only in so far as it should not be misdiagnosed as cancer.

Uterine serous carcinoma

serousuterine papillary serous carcinoma
Type II endometrial cancers are often high-grade, with deep invasion into the underlying uterine wall (myometrium), are of the serous or clear cell type, and carry a poorer prognosis.
Uterine serous carcinoma (USC), is an uncommon form of endometrial cancer that typically arises in postmenopausal women.

Cowden syndrome

Cowden diseaseCowden's syndromeCowden's disease
The inherited genetic condition Cowden syndrome can also cause endometrial cancer.
Females have an elevated risk of developing endometrial cancers, which is highest for those under the age of 50.

Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial adenomatous hyperplasiaEndometrial glandular hyperplasiaendometrial thickening
In 20% of endometrial hyperplasias and 50% of endometrioid cancers, PTEN suffers a loss-of-function mutation or a null mutation, making it less effective or completely ineffective.
Endometrial hyperplasia is a significant risk factor for the development or even co-existence of endometrial cancer, so careful monitoring and treatment of women with this disorder is essential.

Sitting

sitcross-leggedHindu squat
Sitting regularly for prolonged periods is associated with higher mortality from endometrial cancer.
The causes of mortality and morbidity include heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer, specifically, breast, endometrial, colorectal, lung, and epithelial ovarian cancer.

PTEN (gene)

PTENPTEN genePhosphatase and tensin homolog
In 10–20% of endometrial cancers, mostly Grade 3 (the highest histologic grade), mutations are found in a tumor suppressor gene, commonly p53 or PTEN.
Frequent genetic inactivation of PTEN occurs in glioblastoma, endometrial cancer, and prostate cancer; and reduced expression is found in many other tumor types such as lung and breast cancer.

HER2/neu

HER2ERBB2HER-2
The Her2/neu oncogene, which indicates a poor prognosis, is expressed in 20% of endometrioid and serous carcinomas.
Over-expression is also known to occur in ovarian, stomach, adenocarcinoma of the lung and aggressive forms of uterine cancer, such as uterine serous endometrial carcinoma, e.g. HER-2 is over-expressed in approximately 7-34% of patients with gastric cancer and in 30% of salivary duct carcinomas.