Endothelium

endothelialendothelial cellsendothelial cellendotheliaendothelial liningvascular endotheliumendothelial tissuevascular endothelial cellsactivation of the endotheliumblood vessel lining
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.wikipedia
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Lymphatic vessel

lymphatic vesselslymphaticslymph vessel
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Lymph vessels are lined by endothelial cells, and have a thin layer of smooth muscle, and adventitia that binds the lymph vessels to the surrounding tissue.

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Capillaries consist of a single layer of endothelial cells with a supporting subendothelium consisting of a basement membrane and connective tissue.

Capillary

capillariessinusoidscapillary bed
Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (μm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.

Blood

human bloodhematologicaloxygen consumption
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries.
It is continuous with the endothelium of the veins and arteries of the heart, and is joined to the myocardium with a thin layer of connective tissue.

Hemostasis

haemostasishemostaticstop bleeding
These functions include fluid filtration, such as in the glomerulus of the kidney, blood vessel tone, hemostasis, neutrophil recruitment, and hormone trafficking.
The endothelial cells of intact vessels prevent blood clotting with a heparin-like molecule and thrombomodulin and prevent platelet aggregation with nitric oxide and prostacyclin.

Endocardium

endocardialendo-inner surface of the heart
Endothelium of the interior surfaces of the heart chambers is called endocardium.
Its cells are embryologically and biologically similar to the endothelial cells that line blood vessels.

Coagulation

blood clottingblood coagulationclotting
Coagulation begins almost instantly after an injury to the blood vessel has damaged the endothelium lining the blood vessel.

Angiogenesis

angiogenicvascularizationvascularized
Vasculogenesis is the embryonic formation of endothelial cells from mesoderm cell precursors, and from neovascularization, although discussions are not always precise (especially in older texts).

Epithelium

epithelialepithelial cellsepithelial cell
It is a thin layer of simple, or single-layered, squamous cells called endothelial cells.
The lining of the blood and lymphatic vessels are of a specialised form of epithelium called endothelium.

Neutrophil

neutrophilsneutrophil granulocyteneutrophilic
These functions include fluid filtration, such as in the glomerulus of the kidney, blood vessel tone, hemostasis, neutrophil recruitment, and hormone trafficking.
They also express receptors to detect and adhere to endothelium and Fc receptors for opsonin.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries.
The blood vascular system first appeared probably in an ancestor of the triploblasts over 600 million years ago, overcoming the time-distance constraints of diffusion, while endothelium evolved in an ancestral vertebrate some 540–510 million years ago.

Fibrinolysis

fibrinolyticfibrinolytic factorfibrinolytic system
t-PA is released into the blood very slowly by the damaged endothelium of the blood vessels, such that, after several days (when the bleeding has stopped), the clot is broken down.

Endothelial dysfunction

cell damage
Endothelial dysfunction, or the loss of proper endothelial function, is a hallmark for vascular diseases, and is often regarded as a key early event in the development of atherosclerosis.
In vascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction is a systemic pathological state of the endothelium.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Stasis allows leukocytes to marginate (move) along the endothelium, a process critical to their recruitment into the tissues.

Vasodilation

vasodilatorvasodilatorsvasodilatation
These processes are naturally modulated by local paracrine agents from endothelial cells (e.g., nitric oxide, bradykinin, potassium ions, and adenosine), as well as an organism's autonomic nervous system and adrenal glands, both of which secrete catecholamines such as norepinephrine and epinephrine, respectively.

Mesoderm

mesodermalmiddle cell layerparietal layer
Endothelium is of mesodermal origin.
Some of the mesoderm derivatives include the muscle (smooth, cardiac and skeletal), the muscles of the tongue (occipital somites), the pharyngeal arches muscle (muscles of mastication, muscles of facial expressions), connective tissue, dermis and subcutaneous layer of the skin, bone and cartilage, dura mater, endothelium of blood vessels, red blood cells, white blood cells, and microglia, the kidneys and the adrenal cortex.

Thrombosis

blood clotsthromboticblood clot
The main causes of thrombosis are given in Virchow's triad which lists thrombophilia, endothelial cell injury, and disturbed blood flow.

Von Willebrand factor

vWFv'''on '''W'''illebrand '''f'''actorVon Willebrand Disease
A further consequence of damage to the endothelium is the release of pathological quantities of von Willebrand factor, which promote platelet aggregation and adhesion to the subendothelium, and thus the formation of potentially fatal thrombi.
Increased plasma levels in many cardiovascular, neoplastic, and connective tissue diseases are presumed to arise from adverse changes to the endothelium, and may predict an increased risk of thrombosis.

Asymmetric dimethylarginine

N-omega,N-omega'-methyl-L-arginine
One of the main mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction is the diminishing of nitric oxide, often due to high levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, which interfere with the normal L-arginine-stimulated nitric oxide synthesis and so leads to hypertension.
ADMA interferes with L -arginine in the production of nitric oxide (NO), a key chemical involved in normal endothelial function and, by extension, cardiovascular health.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
Endothelial dysfunction, or the loss of proper endothelial function, is a hallmark for vascular diseases, and is often regarded as a key early event in the development of atherosclerosis.
One recent hypothesis suggests that, for unknown reasons, leukocytes, such as monocytes or basophils, begin to attack the endothelium of the artery lumen in cardiac muscle.

Nitric oxide synthase

iNOSinducible nitric oxide synthaseNO synthase
One of the main mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction is the diminishing of nitric oxide, often due to high levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, which interfere with the normal L-arginine-stimulated nitric oxide synthesis and so leads to hypertension.
Best studied are mammals, where three distinct genes encode NOS isozymes: neuronal (nNOS or NOS-1), cytokine-inducible (iNOS or NOS-2) and endothelial (eNOS or NOS-3).

Tunica intima

intimaintimalinner layer
It is made up of one layer of endothelial cells and is supported by an internal elastic lamina.

MAPK7

ERK5Mitogen-activated protein kinase 7
The signalling protein ERK5 is essential for maintaining normal endothelial cell function.
MAPK7 is also critical for cardiovascular development and is essential for endothelial cell function.