Energy crop

biofuel cropsenergy cropsbioenergy cropdendro powerfuel cropsenergy crops,biomass energy cropcrops grown specifically for energy
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat.wikipedia
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Biofuel

biofuelsbio-fuelbio-fuels
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat.
Biofuels can be derived directly from plants (i.e. energy crops), or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes.

Short rotation coppice

To cover the increasing requirements of woody biomass, short rotation coppice (SRC) were applied to agricultural sites.
Short rotation coppice (SRC) is coppice grown as an energy crop.

Crop

cropsfood cropfood crops
Energy crops are generally categorized as woody or herbaceous plants; many of the latter are grasses of the family Graminaceae.
Industrial crops are produced for clothing (fiber crops), biofuel (energy crops, algae fuel), or medicine (medicinal plants).

Willow

willowssallowSalix
Woody crops such as willow or poplar are widely utilised, as well as temperate grasses such as Miscanthus and Pennisetum purpureum (both known as elephant grass).
Energy: Willow is grown for biomass or biofuel, in energy forestry systems, as a consequence of its high energy in-energy out ratio, large carbon mitigation potential and fast growth. Large-scale projects to support willow as an energy crop are already at commercial scale in Sweden. Programs in other countries are being developed through initiatives such as the Willow Biomass Project in the US, and the Energy Coppice Project in the UK. Willow may also be grown to produce charcoal.

Miscanthus giganteus

Miscantheus giganteusgiant miscanthusmiscanthus energy grass
Two leading non-food crops for the production of cellulosic bioethanol are switchgrass and giant miscanthus. Dedicated energy crops are non-food energy crops as giant miscanthus, switchgrass, jatropha, fungi, and algae.
It is currently used in the European Union as a commercial energy crop, as a source of heat and electricity, or converted into biofuel products such as ethanol.

Short rotation forestry

Short rotation forestry
Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) is grown as an energy crop for use in power stations, alone or in combination with other fuels such as coal.

Table of biofuel crop yields

Table of biofuel crop yields
The following table shows the vegetable oil yields of common energy crops associated with biodiesel production.

Butanol fuel

biobutanolButanolbio-butanol
Energy crops for biobutanol are grasses.
The feedstocks are the same as for ethanol: energy crops such as sugar beets, sugar cane, corn grain, wheat and cassava, prospective non-food energy crops such as switchgrass and even guayule in North America, as well as agricultural byproducts such as bagasse, straw and corn stalks.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat.
Other agricultural residues such as sugar cane bagasse and energy crops such as switchgrass may also be a sources of fermentable sugars.

Industrial crop

non-foodnon food cropnon-food crop
Non-food crop
Energy crop

Populus

poplarpoplarspoplar tree
Woody crops such as willow or poplar are widely utilised, as well as temperate grasses such as Miscanthus and Pennisetum purpureum (both known as elephant grass).
Interest exists in using poplar as an energy crop for biomass, in energy forestry systems, particularly in light of its high energy-in to energy-out ratio, large carbon mitigation potential, and fast growth.

Jatropha

Section SpeciesJatropha cuneataJatropha Curcas Linn
Dedicated energy crops are non-food energy crops as giant miscanthus, switchgrass, jatropha, fungi, and algae.
2009 research found that Jatropha biodiesel production requires significantly more water than other common biofuel crops, and that initial yield estimates were high.

Panicum virgatum

switchgrassswitch grasspanic-grass
Two leading non-food crops for the production of cellulosic bioethanol are switchgrass and giant miscanthus. Dedicated energy crops are non-food energy crops as giant miscanthus, switchgrass, jatropha, fungi, and algae.
Increased attention is being placed on switchgrass management as an energy crop.

Cellulosic ethanol

cellulose ethanolcellulosic biofuelcellulosic technologies
Two leading non-food crops for the production of cellulosic bioethanol are switchgrass and giant miscanthus.
Other enzyme companies, such as Dyadic International, are developing genetically engineered fungi which would produce large volumes of cellulase, xylanase and hemicellulase enzymes, which can be used to convert agricultural residues such as corn stover, distiller grains, wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse and energy crops such as switchgrass into fermentable sugars which may be used to produce cellulosic ethanol.

Anaerobic digestion

anaerobic digesteranaerobicanaerobic decomposition
Anaerobic digesters or biogas plants can be directly supplemented with energy crops once they have been ensiled into silage.
Anaerobic digesters can also be fed with specially grown energy crops, such as silage, for dedicated biogas production.

Bioenergy Europe

European Biomass Association
Energy crop

Pennisetum purpureum

elephant grassNapier grassP. purpureum
Woody crops such as willow or poplar are widely utilised, as well as temperate grasses such as Miscanthus and Pennisetum purpureum (both known as elephant grass).
More recently, Napier has been used to alleviate pressure on food production as there is 2Gha of non-arable land suitable for energy crop production.

Pellet fuel

wood pelletwood pelletspellets
Pellets can be made from any one of five general categories of biomass: industrial waste and co-products, food waste, agricultural residues, energy crops, and virgin lumber.

Cellulose

cellulosiccellulose esterCellulosic biomass
Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under development as a renewable fuel source.

Outline of forestry

Forestrybranch of forestrybranch
Short rotation forestry – managing a forest that utilizes fast-growing species as a bio-based energy crop for use in power stations, alone or in combination with other fuels such as coal

Lignocellulosic biomass

lignocellulosiclignocellulosecellulosic biomasses
Lignocellulosic biomass can be broadly classified into virgin biomass, waste biomass and energy crops.

Sustainable energy

clean energygreen energygreen electricity
Dedicated energy crops, such as switchgrass, are also promising cellulose sources that can be sustainably produced in many regions of the United States.