Energy crop

biofuel cropsenergy cropsbioenergy cropbiomass energy cropcrops grown specifically for energydendro powerenergy crops,fuel crops
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat.wikipedia
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Biofuel

biofuelsbio-fuelbio-fuels
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat.
Biofuels can be derived directly from plants (i.e. energy crops), or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes.

Crop

cropsfood cropfood crops
Energy crops are generally categorized as woody or herbaceous plants; many of the latter are grasses of the family Graminaceae.
Industrial crops are produced for clothing (fiber crops), biofuel (energy crops, algae fuel), or medicine (medicinal plants).

Short rotation coppice

To cover the increasing requirements of woody biomass, short rotation coppice (SRC) were applied to agricultural sites.
Short rotation coppice (SRC) is coppice grown as an energy crop.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat.
Other agricultural residues such as sugar cane bagasse and energy crops such as switchgrass may also be a sources of fermentable sugars.

Populus

poplarpoplarspoplar tree
Woody crops such as willow or poplar are widely utilised, as well as temperate grasses such as Miscanthus and Pennisetum purpureum (both known as elephant grass).
Interest exists in using poplar as an energy crop for biomass, in energy forestry systems, particularly in light of its high energy-in to energy-out ratio, large carbon mitigation potential, and fast growth.

Willow

willowssallowSalix
Woody crops such as willow or poplar are widely utilised, as well as temperate grasses such as Miscanthus and Pennisetum purpureum (both known as elephant grass).
Energy: Willow is grown for biomass or biofuel, in energy forestry systems, as a consequence of its high energy in-energy out ratio, large carbon mitigation potential and fast growth. Large-scale projects to support willow as an energy crop are already at commercial scale in Sweden. Programs in other countries are being developed through initiatives such as the Willow Biomass Project in the US, and the Energy Coppice Project in the UK. Willow may also be grown to produce charcoal.

Pennisetum purpureum

elephant grassNapier grassP. purpureum
Woody crops such as willow or poplar are widely utilised, as well as temperate grasses such as Miscanthus and Pennisetum purpureum (both known as elephant grass).
More recently, Napier has been used to alleviate pressure on food production as there is 2Gha of non-arable land suitable for energy crop production.

Butanol fuel

biobutanolButanolbio-butanol
Energy crops for biobutanol are grasses.
The feedstocks are the same as for ethanol: energy crops such as sugar beets, sugar cane, corn grain, wheat and cassava, prospective non-food energy crops such as switchgrass and even guayule in North America, as well as agricultural byproducts such as bagasse, straw and corn stalks.

Jatropha

Jatropha cuneataJatropha curcasJatropha Curcas Linn
Dedicated energy crops are industrial crops including giant miscanthus, switchgrass, jatropha, and some species of fungi and algae.
2009 research found that Jatropha biodiesel production requires significantly more water than other common biofuel crops, and that initial yield estimates were high.

Industrial crop

non-foodnon food cropnon-food crop
Dedicated energy crops are industrial crops including giant miscanthus, switchgrass, jatropha, and some species of fungi and algae.
Energy crop

Miscanthus giganteus

Miscanthus x giganteusgiant miscanthusMiscantheus giganteus
Dedicated energy crops are industrial crops including giant miscanthus, switchgrass, jatropha, and some species of fungi and algae. Two leading non-food crops for the production of cellulosic bioethanol are switchgrass and giant miscanthus.
It is currently used in the European Union as a commercial energy crop, as a source of heat and electricity, or converted into biofuel products such as ethanol.

Short rotation forestry

Short rotation forestry
Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) is grown as an energy crop for use in power stations, alone or in combination with other fuels such as coal.

Table of biofuel crop yields

Table of biofuel crop yields
The following table shows the vegetable oil yields of common energy crops associated with biodiesel production.

Panicum virgatum

switchgrassswitch grasspanic-grass
Dedicated energy crops are industrial crops including giant miscanthus, switchgrass, jatropha, and some species of fungi and algae. Two leading non-food crops for the production of cellulosic bioethanol are switchgrass and giant miscanthus.
Increased attention is being placed on switchgrass management as an energy crop.

Cellulosic ethanol

cellulose ethanolcellulosic biofuelcellulosic technologies
Two leading non-food crops for the production of cellulosic bioethanol are switchgrass and giant miscanthus.
Other enzyme companies, such as Dyadic International, are developing genetically engineered fungi which would produce large volumes of cellulase, xylanase and hemicellulase enzymes, which can be used to convert agricultural residues such as corn stover, distiller grains, wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse and energy crops such as switchgrass into fermentable sugars which may be used to produce cellulosic ethanol.

Anaerobic digestion

anaerobic digesteranaerobicanaerobic decomposition
Anaerobic digesters or biogas plants can be directly supplemented with energy crops once they have been ensiled into silage.
Anaerobic digesters can also be fed with specially grown energy crops, such as silage, for dedicated biogas production.

Harvest

harvestingcrop failureharvests
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat.

Herbaceous plant

herbherbaceousherbs
Energy crops are generally categorized as woody or herbaceous plants; many of the latter are grasses of the family Graminaceae.

Miscanthus

Miscanthidium violaceumsilvergrasses
Woody crops such as willow or poplar are widely utilised, as well as temperate grasses such as Miscanthus and Pennisetum purpureum (both known as elephant grass).

Biogas

sewage gasbio-gasbiomethane
If carbohydrate content is desired for the production of biogas, whole-crops such as maize, Sudan grass, millet, white sweet clover, and many others can be made into silage and then converted into biogas.

Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
If carbohydrate content is desired for the production of biogas, whole-crops such as maize, Sudan grass, millet, white sweet clover, and many others can be made into silage and then converted into biogas.

Sorghum × drummondii

sudan grasssudangrass
If carbohydrate content is desired for the production of biogas, whole-crops such as maize, Sudan grass, millet, white sweet clover, and many others can be made into silage and then converted into biogas.

Millet

milletsglutinous milletKodo
If carbohydrate content is desired for the production of biogas, whole-crops such as maize, Sudan grass, millet, white sweet clover, and many others can be made into silage and then converted into biogas.

Melilotus albus

white sweet cloversweet cloveryellow sweetclover
If carbohydrate content is desired for the production of biogas, whole-crops such as maize, Sudan grass, millet, white sweet clover, and many others can be made into silage and then converted into biogas.

Genetic engineering

genetically engineeredgenetically modifiedgenetic modification
Through genetic modification and application of biotechnology plants can be manipulated to create greater yields, high energy yields can also be realized with existing cultivars.