A report on English Poor Laws

Although many deterrent workhouses developed in the period after the New Poor Law, some had already been built under the existing system. This workhouse in Nantwich, Cheshire, dates from 1780.
The Poor Laws in the aftermath of the Black Death (pictured), when labour was in short supply, were concerned with making the able-bodied work. (also see: Sturdy beggar)
The Old Poor Law or Elizabethan Poor Law is sometimes referred to as the "43rd Elizabeth" as it was passed in the 43rd year that Elizabeth I (pictured) reigned as Queen.
Advertisement for builders to build a new Workhouse in north Wales, 1829
Nassau William Senior argued for greater centralization of the Poor Law system.
Infighting between Edwin Chadwick and other Poor Law Commissioners was one reason for an overhaul of Poor Law administration.
David Lloyd George, architect of the Liberal welfare reforms which were implemented outside of the Poor Law system and paved the way for the eventual abolition of the Poor Law.
Punch criticized the New Poor Law's workhouses for splitting mothers and their infant children.

The English Poor Laws were a system of poor relief in England and Wales that developed out of the codification of late-medieval and Tudor-era laws in 1587–1598.

- English Poor Laws
Although many deterrent workhouses developed in the period after the New Poor Law, some had already been built under the existing system. This workhouse in Nantwich, Cheshire, dates from 1780.

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Henry VIII c. 1537 by Hans Holbein the Younger. Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid.

Dissolution of the monasteries

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The set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents, and friaries in England, Wales, and Ireland, expropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.

The set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents, and friaries in England, Wales, and Ireland, expropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.

Henry VIII c. 1537 by Hans Holbein the Younger. Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid.
Desiderius Erasmus by Holbein; Renaissance humanist and influential critic of religious orders. Louvre, Paris.
Thomas Cromwell by Hans Holbein: Chief Minister for Henry VIII and Vicegerent in Spirituals; created the administrative machinery for the Dissolution
Stogursey Priory in Somerset. An alien priory dissolved in 1414 and granted to Eton College
St Radegund's Priory, Cambridge; dissolved in 1496 and converted into Jesus College, Cambridge
A portion of the ruins of St Mary's Abbey, York, founded in 1155 and destroyed circa 1539
Altarpiece fragments (late 1300 – early 1400) destroyed during the dissolution, mid-16th century.
Dorchester Abbey in Oxfordshire; a smaller house with a net income below £200-year, dissolved in 1536 and purchased for a parish church
Bridlington Priory in Yorkshire; dissolved in 1537 due to the attainder of the prior for treason following the Pilgrimage of Grace
Furness Abbey in Cumbria; dissolved in 1537 and the first of the larger houses to be dissolved by voluntary surrender
The suppression of St John's Abbey, Colchester, with the execution of the abbot shown in the background
Selby Abbey in Yorkshire, Benedictine abbey, purchased by the town as a parish church
Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire, an Augustinian nunnery converted into an aristocratic mansion and country estate
Bolton Abbey in Yorkshire, surviving parochial nave and ruined monastic choir
Quin Abbey, a Franciscan Friary built in the 15th century and suppressed in 1541
Ballintubber Abbey, An Augustinian priory founded in the 13th century, suppressed in 1603 and burned in 1653; but continually re-occupied and used for Catholic services, and re-roofed in the 20th century
Ruins of Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire
Richard Rich, first chancellor of the Court of Augmentations, established to manage the endowments of former monasteries and pay pensions
Lost Monastic Houses in the City of London

Monasteries had also supplied free food and alms for the poor and destitute, and it has been argued that the removal of this and other charitable resources, amounting to about 5 per cent of net monastic income, was one of the factors in the creation of the army of "sturdy beggars" that plagued late Tudor England, causing the social instability that led to the Edwardian and Elizabethan Poor Laws.

Front cover of the Book of Murder

Book of Murder

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Front cover of the Book of Murder

The Book of Murder was a piece of anti-Poor Law propaganda presented as the work of one pseudonymous "Marcus", originally published in Britain during the 1830s by Joshua Hobson.

Different projections of the future human world population

Human overpopulation

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Concept of a human population becoming too large to be sustained by its environment or resources in the long term.

Concept of a human population becoming too large to be sustained by its environment or resources in the long term.

Different projections of the future human world population
UN population estimates and projection 1950–2100
Global fertility rates as of 2020. About half of the world population lives in nations with sub-replacement fertility.
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Map of population density by country, per square kilometer. (See List of countries by population density.)
Table of population growth in England 1780–1810 in An Essay on the Principle of Population (1826) by Thomas Malthus, which would go on to be an influential text on Malthusianism.
American biologist Paul R. Ehrlich generated renewed interest in the topic of overpopulation with his 1968 book The Population Bomb.
Having one less child, on average, saves 58.6 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per year.
Growth in food production has been greater than population growth.
A family planning placard in Ethiopia. It shows some negative effects of having more children than people can care for.
American biologist Paul R. Ehrlich generated renewed interest in the topic of overpopulation with his 1968 book The Population Bomb.

This resulted, for example, in the English poor laws of 1834 and a hesitating response to the Irish Great Famine of 1845–52.

George Nicholls, by Ramsay Richard Reinagle

George Nicholls (commissioner)

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British Poor Law Commissioner after the passing of the Poor Law Amendment Act.

British Poor Law Commissioner after the passing of the Poor Law Amendment Act.

George Nicholls, by Ramsay Richard Reinagle

At Farndon Nicholls started the first savings bank; and looked into the poor laws and their administration.

Medical Relief Disqualification Removal Act 1885

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Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

It provided that any person who had received medical or surgical treatment, for themselves or their family, paid for under the poor laws, was no longer disqualified from voting in parliamentary or municipal elections.