English grammarwikipedia
English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language.
Englishgrammarthere istheregrammatical constructionsnoun phrasethat of modern EnglishEnglish syntax errorrules of EnglishQuestions

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language.
Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent marking pattern with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, a fairly fixed SVO word order and a complex syntax.

Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositions
For other pronouns, and all nouns, adjectives, and articles, grammatical function is indicated only by word order, by prepositions, and by the "Saxon genitive or English possessive" (-'s). Eight "word classes" or "parts of speech" are commonly distinguished in English: nouns, determiners, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions.
This refers to the situation in Latin and Greek (and in English), where such words are placed before their complement (except sometimes in Ancient Greek), and are hence "pre-positioned".

English plurals

pluralpluralsback-formed
For more details, see English plural.
English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.

Clause

clauseclausesfinite clause
This includes the structure of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences, right up to the structure of whole texts.
However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses).

Possessive

possessivepossessive pronounpossessive case
English nouns are not marked for case as they are in some languages, but they have possessive forms, through the addition of -'s (as in John's, children's) or just an apostrophe (with no change in pronunciation) in the case of -[e]s plurals and sometimes other words ending with -s (the dogs' owners, Jesus' love).
Most European languages feature possessive forms associated with personal pronouns, like the English my, mine, your, yours, his and so on. There are two main ways in which these can be used (and a variety of terminologies for each):

English possessive

possessivedouble genitive
For other pronouns, and all nouns, adjectives, and articles, grammatical function is indicated only by word order, by prepositions, and by the "Saxon genitive or English possessive" (-'s). They include the articles the, a[n], certain demonstrative and interrogative words such as this, that, and which, possessives such as my and whose (the role of determiner can also be played by noun possessive forms such as John's and the girl's), various quantifying words like all, some, many, various, and numerals (one, two, etc.).
The possessive form of an English noun, or more generally a noun phrase, is made by suffixing a morpheme which is represented orthographically as 's (the letter s preceded by an apostrophe), and is pronounced in the same way as the regular English plural ending (e)s: namely as when following a sibilant sound (,,, or ), as when following any other voiceless consonant (,,, or ), and as otherwise.

English articles

thearticlesan
They include the articles the, a[n], certain demonstrative and interrogative words such as this, that, and which, possessives such as my and whose (the role of determiner can also be played by noun possessive forms such as John's and the girl's), various quantifying words like all, some, many, various, and numerals (one, two, etc.).
The rules of English grammar require that in most cases a noun, or more generally a noun phrase, must be "completed" with a determiner to clarify what the referent of the noun phrase is. The most common determiners are the articles the and a(n), which specify the presence or absence of definiteness of the noun.

Generic you

generic ''yougeneric youyou
You can also be used as an indefinite pronoun, referring to a person in general (see generic you) compared to the more formal alternative, one (reflexive oneself, possessive one's).
In English grammar and in particular in casual English, generic you, impersonal you, or indefinite you is the use of the pronoun you to refer to an unspecified person, as opposed to its use as the second person pronoun.

English determiners

determinerdeterminers
Other pronouns in English are often identical in form to determiners (especially quantifiers), such as many, a little, etc. Sometimes, the pronoun form is different, as with none (corresponding to the determiner no), nothing, everyone, somebody, etc. Many examples are listed as indefinite pronouns.
An important role in English grammar is played by determiners – words or phrases that precede a noun or noun phrase and serve to express its reference in the context.

English auxiliaries and contractions

auxiliary verbcontractedauxiliaries
The copula be, along with the modal verbs and the other auxiliaries, form a distinct class, sometimes called "special verbs" or simply "auxiliaries". As noted above under, a finite indicative verb (or its clause) is negated by placing the word not after an auxiliary, modal or other "special" verb such as do, can or be.
In English grammar, certain verb forms are classified as auxiliary verbs.

Continuous and progressive aspects

progressiveprogressive aspectcontinuous aspect
Apart from what are called the simple present (write, writes) and simple past (wrote), there are also continuous (progressive) forms (am/is/are/was/were writing), perfect forms (have/has/had written, and the perfect continuous have/has/had been writing), future forms (will write, will be writing, will have written, will have been writing), and conditionals (also called "future in the past") with would in place of will.
This is also the case with English: a construction such as "He is washing" may be described either as present continuous or as present progressive.

Imperative mood

imperativeimperative moodimperatives
The second-person imperative is identical to the (basic) infinitive; other imperative forms may be made with let (let us go, or let's go; let them eat cake).
An example of a verb used in the imperative mood is the English sentence "Please be quiet".

Do-support

do''-supportdo-supportinserted
For more details of this, see do-support.
Do-support (or do-insertion), in English grammar, is the use of the auxiliary verb do, including its inflected forms does and did, to form negated clauses and questions as well as other constructions in which subject–auxiliary inversion is required.

Existential clause

existential clauseexistentialexistentials
This use of there occurs most commonly with forms of the verb be in existential clauses, to refer to the presence or existence of something.
For details about English, see English grammar: There as pronoun.

Part of speech

part of speechparts of speechclosed class
Eight "word classes" or "parts of speech" are commonly distinguished in English: nouns, determiners, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions.
Works of English grammar generally follow the pattern of the European tradition as described above, except that participles are now usually regarded as forms of verbs rather than as a separate part of speech, and numerals are often conflated with other parts of speech: nouns (cardinal numerals, e.g., "one", and collective numerals, e.g., "dozen"), adjectives (ordinal numerals, e.g., "first", and multiplier numerals, e.g., "single") and adverbs (multiplicative numerals, e.g., "once", and distributive numerals, e.g., "singly").

Postpositive adjective

postpositive adjectivepost-positive adjectivePost-positive
Adjectives may be used attributively, as part of a noun phrase (nearly always preceding the noun they modify; for exceptions see postpositive adjective), as in the big house, or predicatively, as in the house is big.
In many other languages, including English, German, Russian and Chinese, prepositive adjectives are the norm (attributive adjectives normally come before the nouns they modify), and adjectives appear postpositively only in special situations, if at all.

Perfect (grammar)

perfectperfect aspectperfect tense
Apart from what are called the simple present (write, writes) and simple past (wrote), there are also continuous (progressive) forms (am/is/are/was/were writing), perfect forms (have/has/had written, and the perfect continuous have/has/had been writing), future forms (will write, will be writing, will have written, will have been writing), and conditionals (also called "future in the past") with would in place of will.
In the grammar of some modern languages, particularly of English, the perfect may be analyzed as an aspect that is independent of tense – the form that is traditionally just called the perfect ("I have done") is then called the present perfect, while the form traditionally called the pluperfect ("I had done") is called the past perfect.

Comparison (grammar)

superlativecomparativecomparison
Many adjectives have comparative and superlative forms in -er and -est, such as faster and fastest (from the positive form fast).
The usual degrees of comparison are the positive, which simply denotes a property (as with the English words big and fully); the comparative, which indicates greater degree (as bigger and more fully); and the superlative, which indicates greatest degree (as biggest and most fully).

Affirmation and negation

negationnegativepolarity
As noted above under, a finite indicative verb (or its clause) is negated by placing the word not after an auxiliary, modal or other "special" verb such as do, can or be.
Affirmative is typically the unmarked polarity, whereas a negative statement is marked in some way, whether by a negating word or particle such as English not, an affix such as Japanese -nai, or by other means, which reverses the meaning of the predicate.

Infinitive

infinitiveto''-infinitivebare infinitive
The basic form of the verb (be, write, play) is used as the infinitive, although there is also a "to-infinitive" (to be, to write, to play) used in many syntactical constructions.
Regarding English, the term "infinitive" is traditionally applied to the unmarked form of the verb (the "plain form") when it forms a non-finite verb, whether or not introduced by the particle to.

Polarity item

negative polaritynegative polarity itempolarity item
Such negating words generally have corresponding negative polarity items (ever for never, anybody for nobody, etc.) which can appear in a negative context, but are not negative themselves (and can thus be used after a negation without giving rise to double negatives).
As examples of polarity items, consider the English lexical items somewhat and at all, as used in the following sentences:

Conditional mood

conditionalconditional moodconditional tense
Apart from what are called the simple present (write, writes) and simple past (wrote), there are also continuous (progressive) forms (am/is/are/was/were writing), perfect forms (have/has/had written, and the perfect continuous have/has/had been writing), future forms (will write, will be writing, will have written, will have been writing), and conditionals (also called "future in the past") with would in place of will.
English does not have an inflective (morphological) conditional mood, except in as much as the modal verbs could, might, should and would may in some contexts be regarded as conditional forms of can, may, shall and will respectively.

English clause syntax

frontingconditional
For the uses of these various verb forms, see English verbs and English clause syntax.
A typical finite clause consists of a noun phrase functioning as the subject, a finite verb, followed by any number of dependents of the verb.

Future tense

futurefuture tenseFUT
Apart from what are called the simple present (write, writes) and simple past (wrote), there are also continuous (progressive) forms (am/is/are/was/were writing), perfect forms (have/has/had written, and the perfect continuous have/has/had been writing), future forms (will write, will be writing, will have written, will have been writing), and conditionals (also called "future in the past") with would in place of will.
Questions and negatives are formed from all of the above constructions in the regular manner: see Questions and Negation in the English grammar article.

Andrey Korsakov

KorsakovKorsakov, Andrey KonstantinovichAndrey Korsakov
Having organised the Chair of English Grammar at Odessa National Mechnikov University in 1963, he was at the head of it for the following 30 years.