English languagewikipedia

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca.
EnglishEnglish-languageenanglophoneEnglish-speakingEng.:English translationEngEnglish as a Second LanguageEnglish:
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Old English

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

Early Modern English

EnglishEarly ModernElizabethan English
Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London, the printing of the King James Bible and the start of the Great Vowel Shift.
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic language), as well as by Latin and French. English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages.
The West Germanic languages include the three most widely spoken Germanic languages: English with around 360-400 million native speakers; German, with over 100 million native speakers; and Dutch, with 24 million native speakers.

List of territorial entities where English is an official language

English-speaking countriesthe full listEnglish-
It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states.
The following is a list of territories where English is an official language, that is, a language used in citizen interactions with government officials.

British Empire

BritishEmpireBritain
Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire, Modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries.
As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread.

World language

global languageinternational languageworld languages
Through all types of printed and electronic media, and spurred by the emergence of the United States as a global superpower, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science, navigation and law.
One of the most widely spoken and fastest spreading world languages today is English, which has over 980,000,000 first- and second-language users worldwide.

Modern English

EnglishModernmodern spoken English
Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire, Modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries.
Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.

Languages of the European Union

EU languagesofficial languages of the European Unionlanguages of the EU
It is a co-official language of the United Nations, the European Union and many other world and regional international organisations.
The EU has 24 official languages, of which three (English, French and German) have the higher status of "procedural" languages of the European Commission (whereas the European Parliament accepts all official languages as working languages ).

Official language

official languagesofficialadministrative language
It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states.
English is the most common official language, with recognized status in 51 countries.

Official languages of the United Nations

six official languagesOfficial languagesofficial languages of the UN
It is a co-official language of the United Nations, the European Union and many other world and regional international organisations.
English (British English with Oxford spelling)

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages.
The most widely spoken Indo-European languages by native speakers are Spanish, Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), English, Portuguese, Bengali, Punjabi, and Russian, each with over 100 million speakers, with German, French, Marathi, Italian, and Persian also having more than 50 million.

List of languages by number of native speakers

most spoken languagesmost spoken language10th most spoken language in the world
English is the third most-spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish.
Conversely, many commonly accepted languages, including German, Italian and even English, encompass varieties that are not mutually intelligible.

English as a lingua franca

de facto global languagebecome the ''lingua francaEnglish functions as a lingua franca
Through all types of printed and electronic media, and spurred by the emergence of the United States as a global superpower, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science, navigation and law.
English as a lingua franca (ELF) is the use of the English language as "a common means of communication for speakers of different first languages".

Low German

Low SaxonndsLow German/Low Saxon
Low German/Low Saxon is also closely related, and sometimes English, the Frisian languages, and Low German are grouped together as the Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages, though this grouping remains debated.
Low German is most closely related to Frisian and English, with which it forms the Ingvaeonic group of the West Germanic languages.

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
English is classified as a Germanic language because it shares innovations with other Germanic languages such as Dutch, German, and Swedish.
It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

West Germanic languages

West GermanicWest Germanic languageWest
English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca.
The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English, German, and Dutch.

Caribbean

West Indiesthe CaribbeanWest Indian
English is the most commonly spoken language in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand, and it is widely spoken in some areas of the Caribbean, Africa and South Asia.
From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies.

Old Norse

NorseOld ScandinavianON
It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic language), as well as by Latin and French.
Old Norse also had an influence on English dialects and Lowland Scots, which contain many Old Norse loanwords.

Middle English creole hypothesis

Some scholars even believeEnglish
Some scholars have even argued that English can be considered a mixed language or a creole—a theory called the Middle English creole hypothesis.
The Middle English creole hypothesis is the concept that the English language is a creole, i.e. a language that developed from a pidgin.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
English is classified as a Germanic language because it shares innovations with other Germanic languages such as Dutch, German, and Swedish.
The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish.

Celtic language decline in England

displacement of the languages of Brittonic descentdisplacing the Celtic languagesreplaced
By the seventh century, the Germanic language of the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in Britain, replacing the languages of Roman Britain (43–409 CE): Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, and Latin, brought to Britain by the Roman occupation.
Celtic language-death in England refers primarily to the process by which speakers of Brittonic languages in what is currently England switched to speaking English.

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic language), as well as by Latin and French.
In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language for business, after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese.

Baltic Sea

BalticBaltic coastthe Baltic
Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Britain that would later take their name, England, both names ultimately deriving from the Anglia peninsula in the Baltic Sea.
"Baltic Sea" is used in English; in the Baltic languages Latvian (Baltijas jūra; in Old Latvian it was referred to as "the Big Sea", while the present day Gulf of Riga was referred to as "the Little Sea") and Lithuanian (Baltijos jūra); in Latin (Mare Balticum) and the Romance languages French (Mer Baltique), Italian (Mar Baltico), Portuguese (Mar Báltico), Romanian (Marea Baltică) and Spanish (Mar Báltico); in Greek (Βαλτική Θάλασσα Valtikí Thálassa); in Albanian (Deti Balltik); in Welsh (Môr Baltig); in the Slavic languages Polish (Morze Bałtyckie or Bałtyk), Czech (Baltské moře or Balt), Slovenian (Baltsko morje), Bulgarian (Балтийско море Baltijsko More), Kashubian (Bôłt), Macedonian (Балтичко Море Baltičko More), Ukrainian (Балтійське море Baltijs′ke More), Belarusian (Балтыйскае мора Baltyjskaje Mora), Russian (Балтийское море Baltiyskoye More) and Serbo-Croatian (Baltičko more / Балтичко море); in Hungarian (Balti-tenger).

Frisia

FrieslandFriesianFrisian
Old English developed from a set of North Sea Germanic dialects originally spoken along the coasts of Frisia, Lower Saxony, Jutland, and Southern Sweden by Germanic tribes known as the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes.
Frisia is the traditional homeland of the Frisians, a Germanic people that speaks Frisian languages, which together with English and Scots form the Anglo-Frisian language group.

Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelinguae francae
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca.
For example, English is a vernacular in the United Kingdom but is used as a lingua franca in the Philippines.