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British Empire

BritishEmpireBritain
The many English possessions then became the foundation of the British Empire and its fast-growing naval and mercantile power, which until then had yet to overtake those of the Dutch Republic, the Kingdom of Portugal, and the Kingdom of Spain.
It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries.

Fort St. George, India

Fort St. GeorgeFort St GeorgeFort St. George, Madras
In 1639, a series of English fortresses on the Indian coast was initiated with Fort St George.
Fort St George (or historically, White Town ) is the first English (later British) fortress in India, founded in 1644 at the coastal city of Madras, the modern city of Chennai.

English Tangier

TangierColony of TangierTangier 1662–80
In 1661, the marriage of King Charles II to Catherine of Braganza brought him as part of her dowry new possessions which until then had been Portuguese, including Tangier in North Africa and Bombay in India.
English Tangier refers to the Moroccan city of Tangier during the period of its colonial occupation by the Kingdom of England, which lasted from 1661 to 1684.

Newfoundland Colony

Newfoundlandcolony of Newfoundlandcolony
In North America, Newfoundland and Virginia were the first centres of English colonisation.
Newfoundland Colony was the name for an English and later British colony established in 1610 on the island of the same name off the Atlantic coast of Canada, in what is now the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Province of Maine

Mainecolonial Mainecolony of Maine
As the 17th century wore on, Maine, Plymouth, New Hampshire, Salem, Massachusetts Bay, New Scotland, Connecticut, New Haven, Maryland, and Rhode Island and Providence were settled.
The Province of Maine refers to any of several English colonies.

New Haven Colony

New HavenNew Haven, ConnecticutQuinnipiac Colony
As the 17th century wore on, Maine, Plymouth, New Hampshire, Salem, Massachusetts Bay, New Scotland, Connecticut, New Haven, Maryland, and Rhode Island and Providence were settled.
The New Haven Colony was a small English colony in North America from 1637 to 1664 in what is now the state of Connecticut.

Acts of Union 1707

Act of UnionActs of UnionUnion
The English overseas possessions, also known as the English colonial empire, comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonised, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union of 1707 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
English overseas possessions made England wealthy in comparison to Scotland and had many times the number of Members of Parliament than Scotland, thus able to pass any legislation over Scottish objections.

Province of Maryland

MarylandMaryland colonycolonial Maryland
As the 17th century wore on, Maine, Plymouth, New Hampshire, Salem, Massachusetts Bay, New Scotland, Connecticut, New Haven, Maryland, and Rhode Island and Providence were settled.
Although Maryland was an early pioneer of religious toleration in the English colonies, religious strife among Anglicans, Puritans, Catholics, and Quakers was common in the early years, and Puritan rebels briefly seized control of the province.

Kingdom of England

EnglandEnglishAnglo
The English overseas possessions, also known as the English colonial empire, comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonised, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union of 1707 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, and his daughter Elizabeth I (reigned 1558–1603) the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World.

Kingdom of Great Britain

Great BritainBritishBritain
The English overseas possessions, also known as the English colonial empire, comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonised, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union of 1707 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The First British Empire, based upon the English overseas possessions, was enlarged.

Roanoke Colony

RoanokeLost ColonyLost Colony of Roanoke
Instead, he sent others to found the Roanoke Colony, later known as the "Lost Colony". Roanoke Colony, in present-day North Carolina, was first founded in 1586 but was abandoned the next year. In 1587 a second attempt was made at establishing a settlement, but the colonists disappeared, leading to the name 'Lost Colony.' One of those lost was Virginia Dare.
The Roanoke Colony, also known as the Lost Colony, was the first attempt at founding a permanent English settlement in North America.

Humphrey Gilbert

Sir Humphrey GilbertGilbertearly explorer
In 1578, while Drake was away on his circumnavigation, Queen Elizabeth granted a patent for overseas exploration to his half-brother Humphrey Gilbert, and that year Gilbert sailed for the West Indies to engage in piracy and to establish a colony in North America.
of Compton in the parish of Marldon and of Greenway in the parish of Churston Ferrers, both in Devon, England, was an adventurer, explorer, member of parliament and soldier who served during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and was a pioneer of the English colonial empire in North America and the Plantations of Ireland.

Somers Isles Company

BermudaCompany of the Somers IslesLondon Company of the Somers Isles
Early examples of these are the Virginia Company, which created the first successful English overseas settlements at Jamestown in 1607 and Bermuda, unofficially in 1609 and officially in 1612, its spin-off, the Somers Isles Company, to which Bermuda (also known as the Somers Isles) was transferred in 1615, and the Newfoundland Company which settled Cuper's Cove near St John's, Newfoundland in 1610.
The Somers Isles Company (fully, The London Company of The Somers Isles or the Company of The Somers Isles) was formed in 1615 to operate the English colony of the Somers Isles, also known as Bermuda, as a commercial venture.

Blackwall, London

BlackwallBlackwall Dock, LondonBlackwall Reach
Financed by the Muscovy Company, Martin Frobisher set sail on 7 June 1576, from Blackwall, London, seeking the North West Passage.
In 1576, Martin Frobisher left Blackwall (then part of Poplar) and landed at Frobisher Bay on Baffin Island, claiming it for England (its first overseas possession) in the name of Queen Elizabeth I.

Charter colony

charter coloniescharterformal charters
Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts Bay were also charter colonies.
Charter colony is one of three classes of colonial government established in the 17th century English colonies in North America, the other classes being proprietary colony and royal colony.

St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador

St. JohnSt. John's, NewfoundlandSt John
Early examples of these are the Virginia Company, which created the first successful English overseas settlements at Jamestown in 1607 and Bermuda, unofficially in 1609 and officially in 1612, its spin-off, the Somers Isles Company, to which Bermuda (also known as the Somers Isles) was transferred in 1615, and the Newfoundland Company which settled Cuper's Cove near St John's, Newfoundland in 1610. In 1583, Gilbert sailed to Newfoundland, where in a formal ceremony he took possession of the harbour of St John's together with all land within two hundred leagues to the north and south of it, although he left no settlers behind him.
With respect to the oldest surviving permanent English settlements in North America, it was preceded by Jamestown, Virginia (1607), the Cuper's Cove colony at Cupids in Newfoundland (1610), St. George's, Bermuda (1612), and the Bristol's Hope colony at Harbour Grace in Newfoundland (1618).

Cuper's Cove

colonyCuper's Cove (Newfoundland)Cupers Cove
Early examples of these are the Virginia Company, which created the first successful English overseas settlements at Jamestown in 1607 and Bermuda, unofficially in 1609 and officially in 1612, its spin-off, the Somers Isles Company, to which Bermuda (also known as the Somers Isles) was transferred in 1615, and the Newfoundland Company which settled Cuper's Cove near St John's, Newfoundland in 1610.
Cuper's Cove, on the southwest shore of Conception Bay on Newfoundland's Avalon Peninsula was an early English settlement in the New World, and the second one after Jamestown, Virginia to endure for longer than a year.

Atlantic slave trade

slave tradetransatlantic slave tradeAfrican slaves
In 1660, King Charles II established the Royal African Company, essentially a trading company dealing in slaves, led by his brother James, Duke of York.
The first Africans imported to the English colonies were classified as "indentured servants", like workers coming from England, and also as "apprentices for life".

Barbados

🇧🇧BarbadianBajan
The most substantial English settlement in that period was at Barbados.
In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, and it became an English and later British colony.

Virginia Dare

Ananias DareBirthday of Virginia Darethe first child born of English parents in the Americas
Roanoke Colony, in present-day North Carolina, was first founded in 1586 but was abandoned the next year. In 1587 a second attempt was made at establishing a settlement, but the colonists disappeared, leading to the name 'Lost Colony.' One of those lost was Virginia Dare.
Virginia Dare (born August 18, 1587, date of death unknown) was the first English child born in a New World English overseas possession, and was named after the territory of Virginia, her birthplace.

Colony of Virginia

Virginiacolonial VirginiaVirginia Colony
In North America, Newfoundland and Virginia were the first centres of English colonisation.
The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island (modern eastern North Carolina) by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s.

Mumbai

BombayMumbai, IndiaBombay, India
In 1661, the marriage of King Charles II to Catherine of Braganza brought him as part of her dowry new possessions which until then had been Portuguese, including Tangier in North Africa and Bombay in India.
After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay.

New France

FrenchCanadaCanada (New France)
Spain was well established in the Americas, while Portugal had built up a network of trading posts and fortresses on the coasts of Africa, Brazil, and China, and the French had already begun to settle the Saint Lawrence River, which later became New France.
During the first decades of the colony's existence, the French population numbered only a few hundred, while the English colonies to the south were much more populous and wealthy.

Sea Venture

Deliveranceflagship
Bermuda, today the oldest-remaining British Overseas Territory, was settled and claimed by England as a result of the shipwreck there in 1609 of the Virginia Company's flagship Sea Venture.
The proprietary of the London Company had established the settlement of Jamestown in Virginia in 1607, and delivered supplies and additional settlers in 1608, raising the English colony's population to 200, despite many deaths.

Cuttyhunk Island

CuttyhunkCharles ChurchCuttyhunk Island, Massachusetts
At Cuttyhunk, one of the Elizabeth Islands (named after Queen Elizabeth I) of present-day Massachusetts, a small fort and trading post was established by Bartholomew Gosnold in 1602, but the island was abandoned after only one month.
A small outpost for the harvesting of sassafras was occupied for a few weeks in 1602, arguably making it the first English settlement in New England.