English phonology

EnglishEnglish phoneticsEnglish pronunciationpronunciationIPA chart for EnglishEnglish phonology – vowels in unstressed syllablesoccur in EnglishphonologyPhonology of English/'brɪg/
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.wikipedia
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Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
In general, however, the regional dialects of English share a largely similar (but not identical) phonological system.
The word 'phonology' (as in the phonology of English) can also refer to the phonological system (sound system) of a given language.

T-glottalization

T-glottalisationT glottalisationt''-glottalization
Fortis consonants are always voiceless, aspirated in syllable onset (except in clusters beginning with ), and sometimes also glottalized to an extent in syllable coda (most likely to occur with, see T-glottalization), while lenis consonants are always unaspirated and un-glottalized, and generally partially or fully voiced.
In English phonology, t-glottalization or t-glottaling is a sound change in certain English dialects and accents that causes the phoneme to be pronounced as the glottal stop in certain positions.

Labial consonant

LabiallabialsBilabial
The two common labial articulations are bilabials, articulated using both lips, and labiodentals, articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth, both of which are present in English.

Pronunciation of English /r/

R''-labializationsee Pronunciation of English /r/ as
Pronunciation of the phoneme [[English phonology|]] in the English language has many variations in different dialects.

Phone (phonetics)

phonesphonespeech sound
A phoneme of a language or dialect is an abstraction of a speech sound or of a group of different sounds which are all perceived to have the same function by speakers of that particular language or dialect.
For example, the English word spin consists of four phones, [s], [p], [ɪ] and [n], and the word thus has the phonetic representation [spɪn].

History of English

History of the English languagestandardization of English spellingEnglish
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.

General American English

General AmericanGAstandard American accent
Phonological analysis of English often concentrates on or uses, as a reference point, one or more of the prestige or standard accents, such as Received Pronunciation for England, General American for the United States, and General Australian for Australia.

Monophthongization

smoothingmonophthongizedmonophthongised
Some English sounds that may be perceived by native speakers as single vowels are in fact diphthongs; an example is the vowel sound in pay, pronounced.

Phonological history of English vowels

complex waysdevelopment of vowelshistory of English phonology
The development of vowels has been much more complex.
In the history of English phonology, there have been many diachronic sound changes affecting vowels, especially involving phonemic splits and mergers.

Great Vowel Shift

a change in vowel pronunciationby 1600Great English Vowel Shift
One of the most notable series of changes is that known as the Great Vowel Shift, which began around the late 14th century.
The Great Vowel Shift was a series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place primarily between 1350 and the 17th and early 18th centuries, beginning in southern England and today having influenced effectively all dialects of English.

Pronunciation of English ⟨a⟩

bad–lad splittrap–bath splitbad''–''lad'' split
Many other changes in vowels have taken place over the centuries (see the separate articles on the low back, high back and high front vowels, short A, and diphthongs).
There are a variety of pronunciations in modern English and in historical forms of the language for words spelled with the [[A|letter ]].

Regional accents of English

British accentEnglish accentRegional accents of English speakers
This article provides an overview of the numerous identifiable variations in pronunciation; such distinctions usually derive from the phonetic inventory of local dialects, as well as from broader differences in the Standard English of different primary-speaking populations.

Phonological history of English consonants

H-droppingh''-droppingH-adding
The English consonant system has been relatively stable over time, although a number of significant changes have occurred.
The voiceless stops /p/, /t/, /k/ are typically aspirated when they begin a stressed syllable, becoming, as described under English phonology (obstruents).

Stress and vowel reduction in English

Weak and strong forms in Englishweak formReduced vowels
Also, certain common words (a, an, of, for, etc.) are pronounced with a schwa when they are unstressed, although they have different vowels when they are in a stressed position (see Weak and strong forms in English).
See English phonology – vowels in unstressed syllables.

Vowel

vowelsvowel heightV
English has a particularly large number of vowel phonemes, and in addition the vowels of English differ considerably between dialects.

Non-native pronunciations of English

broken Englishnon-native English speakerJapanese English
The speech of non-native English speakers may exhibit pronunciation characteristics that result from their imperfectly learning the sound system of English, either by transferring the phonological rules from their mother tongue into their English speech ("interference") or through implementing strategies similar to those used in primary language acquisition.

Phonological history of English consonant clusters

yod-droppingyod-coalescenceG-dropping
There have also been many changes in consonant clusters, mostly reductions, for instance those that produced the usual modern pronunciations of such letter combinations as, and [[English wh|]].
Yod-coalescence is a process that palatalizes the clusters into respectively (for the meanings of the symbols, see English phonology).

Phoneme

phonemicphonemesphonemically
A phoneme of a language or dialect is an abstraction of a speech sound or of a group of different sounds which are all perceived to have the same function by speakers of that particular language or dialect.
The English language uses a rather large set of 13 to 21 vowel phonemes, including diphthongs, although its 22 to 26 consonants are close to average.

Phonological history of English diphthongs

line–loin mergerlong mid mergerspane-pain merger
Many other changes in vowels have taken place over the centuries (see the separate articles on the low back, high back and high front vowels, short A, and diphthongs).
For more information see English phonology (vowels).

English orthography

English spellingspellingb'''ir'''d
Former pronunciations of many words are reflected in their spellings, as English orthography has generally not kept pace with phonological changes since the Middle English period.