English plurals

pluralpluralsback-formedclassical pluralderived from the FrenchEnglish pluralFrench compoundsidentical in the singular and pluralirregular plural formsirregular plurals
English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.wikipedia
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Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflect
English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.
For details, see English plural, English verbs, and English irregular verbs.

English grammar

Englishgrammarthere
English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.
In most cases the plural is formed from the singular by adding -[e]s (as in dogs, bushes), although there are also irregular forms (woman/women, foot/feet, etc.), including cases where the two forms are identical (sheep, series). For more details, see English plural.

Morpheme

morphemesmorphemicmonomorphemic
The plural morpheme in English is suffixed to the end of most nouns.
For example, in English, the plural marker -(e)s of regular nouns can be pronounced (bats), (bugs), or, (buses), depending on the final sound of the noun's plural form.

Plural

pl.plplurals
English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.
(For details and different cases, see English plural).

Consonant voicing and devoicing

devoicingvoicingdevoiced
In Old and Middle English voiceless fricatives, mutated to voiced fricatives before a voiced ending.
English no longer has a productive process of voicing stem-final fricatives when forming noun-verb pairs or plural nouns, but there are still examples of voicing from earlier in the history of English:

Zero (linguistics)

zeroØ
Some nouns have identical singular and plural (zero inflection).
Similarly, a zero inflection is an unrealized inflection, such as in nouns with identical singular and plural forms. For example, plural of sheep can be analyzed as sheep-∅.

Old English

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
The modern English plural ending -(e)s derives from the Old English -as, but the latter applied only to "strong" masculine nouns in the nominative and accusative cases; different plural endings were used in other instances.

English words of Greek origin

Greekfor upsilon in Greek loan-wordsGreek continue to influence English
Some Greek plurals are preserved in English (cf. Plurals of words of Greek origin):
And there are misleading cases: pentagon comes from Greek pentagonon, so its plural cannot be *pentaga; it is pentagons (Greek πεντάγωνα/pentagona) (cf. Plurals from Latin and Greek).

Back-formation

back formationback-formedbackformation
In the American fashion industry it is common to refer to a single pair of pants as a pant —though this is a back-formation, the English word (deriving from the French pantalon) was originally singular.
Many words came into English by this route: Pease was once a mass noun but was reinterpreted as a plural, leading to the back-formation pea.

English verbs

-edEnglish-eth
English verbs
In terms of pronunciation, the ending is pronounced as after sibilants (as in lurches), as after voiceless consonants other than sibilants (as in makes), and as otherwise (as in adds). These are the same rules that apply to the pronunciation of the regular noun plural suffix -[e]s and the possessive -'s.

Postpositive adjective

post-positive adjectivePost-positiveadjectives postpositively
These heads are also nouns and the head usually pluralizes, leaving the second, usually a post-positive adjective, term unchanged:
In the plural forms of expressions with postpositive adjectives or other postpositive modifiers, the pluralizing morpheme (most commonly the suffix -s or -es) is added after the noun, rather than after the entire phrase.

Biceps

biceps brachiibiceps brachii musclebicep
The term, from Latin, for the main upper arm flexor in the singular is the biceps muscle (from biceps brachii); however, many English speakers take it to be a plural and refer to the muscle of only one arm, by back-formation, as a bicep.
The English form bicep [sic], attested from 1939, is a back formation derived from interpreting the s of biceps as the English plural marker -s.

Plurale tantum

pluralia tantumalways pluralplural
Such a noun is called a plurale tantum.
English plural

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.

English personal pronouns

personal pronounsEnglishpronoun
For plurals of pronouns, see English personal pronouns.

Received Pronunciation

RPBBC EnglishOxford accent
Phonological transcriptions provided in this article are for Received Pronunciation and General American.

General American

GAstandard American accentGeneral American English
Phonological transcriptions provided in this article are for Received Pronunciation and General American.

English phonology

EnglishpronunciationEnglish phonology – vowels in unstressed syllables
For more information, see English phonology.

Affix

suffixaffixessuffixes
The plural morpheme in English is suffixed to the end of most nouns.

Sibilant

sibilantssibilancesibilant consonant
Where a singular noun ends in a sibilant sound —,,, or — the plural is formed by adding or (in some transcription systems, this is abbreviated as ).

Voice (phonetics)

voiced voiced voicing
When the singular form ends in a voiceless consonant (other than a sibilant) —,, (sometimes) or — the plural is formed by adding.

Consonant

consonantsCconson.
When the singular form ends in a voiceless consonant (other than a sibilant) —,, (sometimes) or — the plural is formed by adding.

Orthography

orthographicorthographiesorthographically
words ending in vowels or voiced non-sibilants) the regular plural adds, represented orthographically by -s:

Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
Phonologically, these rules are sufficient to describe most English plurals.

Italian language

ItalianitItalian-language
However many nouns of foreign origin, including almost all Italian loanwords, add only -s: