English plurals

English pluralpluralpluralsback-formedclassical pluralderived from the FrenchEnglish plural noun formFrench compoundsidentical in the singular and pluralirregular plural forms
English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.wikipedia
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Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.
For details, see English plural, English verbs, and English irregular verbs.

English grammar

Englishgrammarthere is
English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.
For more details, see English plural.

Consonant voicing and devoicing

devoicingvoicingdevoiced
In Old and Middle English voiceless fricatives, mutated to voiced fricatives before a voiced ending.
English no longer has a productive process of voicing stem-final fricatives when forming noun-verb pairs or plural nouns, but there are still examples of voicing from earlier in the history of English:

Morpheme

morphemesmorphemicderivational
The plural morpheme in English is suffixed to the end of most nouns.
For example, the English plural marker -(e)s of regular nouns can be pronounced (bats), (bugs), or, (buses), depending on the final sound of the noun's plural form.

Plural

pl.plplural form
English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.
(For details and different cases, see English plural).

English orthography

English spellingspellingb'''ir'''d
words ending in vowels or voiced non-sibilants) the regular plural adds, represented orthographically by -s:

Old English

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
The modern English plural ending -(e)s derives from the Old English -as, but the latter applied only to "strong" masculine nouns in the nominative and accusative cases; different plural endings were used in other instances.

English words of Greek origin

Greekenfor upsilon in Greek loan-words
And there are misleading cases: pentagon comes from Greek pentagonon, so its plural cannot be *pentaga; it is pentagons -- the Greek form would be *pentagona (cf. Plurals from Latin and Greek).

Back-formation

back formationback-formedbackformation
In the American fashion industry it is common to refer to a single pair of pants as a pant—though this is a back-formation, the English word (deriving from the French pantalon) was originally singular.
Many words came into English by this route: pease was once a mass noun (as in "pease pudding"), but was reinterpreted as a plural, leading to the back-formation pea.

English verbs

English-edEnglish verb
These are the same rules that apply to the pronunciation of the regular noun plural suffix -[e]s and the possessive -'s.

Postpositive adjective

post-positive adjectivePost-positiveadjectives postpositively
These heads are also nouns and the head usually pluralizes, leaving the second, usually a post-positive adjective, term unchanged:
In the plural forms of expressions with postpositive adjectives or other postpositive modifiers, the pluralizing morpheme (most commonly the suffix -s or -es) is added after the noun, rather than after the entire phrase.

Biceps

biceps brachiibiceps brachii musclebicep
The term, from Latin, for the main upper arm flexor in the singular is the biceps muscle (from biceps brachii); however, many English speakers take it to be a plural and refer to the muscle of only one arm, by back-formation, as a bicep.
The English form bicep [sic], attested from 1939, is a back formation derived from interpreting the s of biceps as the English plural marker -s.

Plurale tantum

pluralia tantumalways pluralplural
This is true even for some binary nouns where the singular form is not found in isolation, such as a trouser mangle or the scissor kick.

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.

English personal pronouns

personal pronounsEnglishEnglish personal pronoun
For plurals of pronouns, see English personal pronouns.

Received Pronunciation

RPQueen's EnglishBBC English
Phonological transcriptions provided in this article are for Received Pronunciation and General American.

General American English

General AmericanGAstandard American accent
Phonological transcriptions provided in this article are for Received Pronunciation and General American.

English phonology

EnglishEnglish phoneticsEnglish pronunciation
For more information, see English phonology.

Affix

suffixaffixesaffixation
The plural morpheme in English is suffixed to the end of most nouns.

Sibilant

sibilantssibilancesibilant consonant
Where a singular noun ends in a sibilant sound—,,, or —the plural is formed by adding or (in some transcription systems, this is abbreviated as ).

Voice (phonetics)

voiced voiced voicing
When the singular form ends in a voiceless consonant (other than a sibilant)—,, (sometimes) or —the plural is formed by adding.

Consonant

consonantsCconsonantal
When the singular form ends in a voiceless consonant (other than a sibilant)—,, (sometimes) or —the plural is formed by adding.

Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
Phonologically, these rules are sufficient to describe most English plurals.

Italian language

ItalianItalian-languageit
However many nouns of foreign origin, including almost all Italian loanwords, add only -s: