English subjunctive

subjunctivesubjunctive moodpast subjunctiveEnglishfuture subjunctivehistorical subjunctive verb formpluperfect subjunctivepresent subjunctivesubjunctive formsubjunctive in English
The subjunctive in English is used to form sentences that do not describe known objective facts, but rather wishes or hypothetical suppositions.wikipedia
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Subjunctive mood

subjunctivePresent subjunctiveconjunctive
The subjunctive in English is used to form sentences that do not describe known objective facts, but rather wishes or hypothetical suppositions.
Examples of the subjunctive in English are found in the sentences "I suggest that you be careful" and "It is important that she stay by your side."

Realis mood

indicativeindicative moodrealis
The subjunctive mood, such as She suggests that he speak English, contrasts with the indicative mood, which is used for statements of fact, such as He speaks English. In Modern English, the subjunctive form of a verb often looks identical to the indicative form, and thus subjunctives are not a very visible grammatical feature of English.
In the second sentence work is in the subjunctive mood, which is an irrealis mood – here that he work does not necessarily express a fact about the real world (he could be rejecting necessity and refusing to work), but refers to what would be a desirable state of affairs.

Imperative mood

imperativeimperativesprohibitive
The present subjunctive is identical to the bare infinitive (and imperative) of the verb in all forms.
(The present subjunctive always has the same form as the imperative, although it is negated differently – the imperative is negated using do not, as in "Don't touch me!"; see do-support.) The imperative form is understood as being in the second person (the subject pronoun you is usually omitted, although it can be included for emphasis), with no explicit indication of singular or plural.

English modal verbs

modal verbswoulddouble modal
The English modal verbs do not have present subjunctive forms.
They are defective: they are not used as infinitives or participles (except occasionally in non-standard English; see below), nor as imperatives, nor (in the standard way) as subjunctives.

Defective verb

defectivedefective verbsdefectiveness
Note also the defective verb beware, which lacks indicative forms, but has a present subjunctive: (that) she beware…
(However, the use of the preterite form should as a subjunctive form continues, as in If I should go there tomorrow, ..., which contrasts with the indicative form I shall go there tomorrow.) The defective verb ought was etymologically the past tense of owe (the affection he ought his children), but it has since split off, leaving owe as a non-defective verb with its original sense and a regular past tense (owed).

Modern English

EnglishModern18th century
In Modern English, the subjunctive form of a verb often looks identical to the indicative form, and thus subjunctives are not a very visible grammatical feature of English.
Revival of the present ("mandative") English subjunctive

Infinitive

to''-infinitivebare infinitiveinfinitival
The present subjunctive is identical to the bare infinitive (and imperative) of the verb in all forms.
Moreover, the unmarked form of the verb is not considered an infinitive when it is forms a finite verb: like a present indicative ("I sit every day"), subjunctive ("I suggest that he sit"), or imperative ("Sit down!").

English conditional sentences

first conditionalsecond conditional
The present subjunctive is occasionally found in clauses expressing a probable condition, such as If I be found guilty… (more common is am or should be; for more information see English conditional sentences).
Occasionally, mainly in a formal and somewhat archaic style, a subjunctive is used in the zero-conditional condition clause (as in "If the prisoner be held for more than five days, ...). For more details see English subjunctive. (See also below.)

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
As noted in the sections above, some clauses containing subjunctive verb forms, or other constructions that have the function of subjunctives, may exhibit subject–auxiliary inversion (an auxiliary or copular verb changes places with the subject of the clause).
Additional archaic forms include art, wast, wert, and occasionally beest (as a subjunctive).

Subjunctive in Dutch

subjunctivesubjunctive mood in Dutch
Subjunctive in Dutch
As in English the subjunctive mood in Dutch has gradually been replaced by modal auxiliary verbs.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The subjunctive in English is used to form sentences that do not describe known objective facts, but rather wishes or hypothetical suppositions.

Fact

factsscientific factaccurate
The subjunctive in English is used to form sentences that do not describe known objective facts, but rather wishes or hypothetical suppositions.

Irrealis mood

irrealispotential moodpotential
Terminology varies; sometimes what is called the present subjunctive here is referred to simply as the subjunctive, and the form were may be treated just as an alternative irrealis form of was rather than a past subjunctive.

Affirmation and negation

negationnegativepolarity
Another case where present-subjunctive forms are distinguished from indicatives is when they are negated: compare I recommend that they not enter the competition (subjunctive) with I hope that they do not enter the competition (indicative).

Inversion (linguistics)

inversioninvertedinverting
Certain subjunctives (particularly were) can also be distinguished from indicatives by the possibility of inversion with the subject, as described under below.

Jussive mood

jussivejussives
The main use of the English present subjunctive, called the mandative or jussive subjunctive, occurs in that clauses (declarative content clauses; the word that is sometimes omitted in informal and conversational usage) expressing a circumstance that is desired, demanded, recommended, necessary, ''[https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/vel_sim.

Content clause

indirect questiondeclarative content clausedirect question
The main use of the English present subjunctive, called the mandative or jussive subjunctive, occurs in that clauses (declarative content clauses; the word that is sometimes omitted in informal and conversational usage) expressing a circumstance that is desired, demanded, recommended, necessary, ''[https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/vel_sim.

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
As noted in the sections above, some clauses containing subjunctive verb forms, or other constructions that have the function of subjunctives, may exhibit subject–auxiliary inversion (an auxiliary or copular verb changes places with the subject of the clause). Such a clause may be dependent on verbs like insist, suggest, demand, prefer, adjectives like necessary, desirable, or nouns like recommendation, necessity; it may be part of the expression in order that… (or some formal uses of so that…); it may also stand independently as the subject of a clause or as a predicative expression.

Predicative expression

predicativepredicative adjectivepredicatively
Such a clause may be dependent on verbs like insist, suggest, demand, prefer, adjectives like necessary, desirable, or nouns like recommendation, necessity; it may be part of the expression in order that… (or some formal uses of so that…); it may also stand independently as the subject of a clause or as a predicative expression.

British English

BritishEnglishUK
In most of the above examples a form with should can be used as an alternative: I insist that he should leave now etc. This is more common in British English than American English.

American English

EnglishAmericanEnglish-language
In most of the above examples a form with should can be used as an alternative: I insist that he should leave now etc. This is more common in British English than American English.

Indirect speech

indirect discoursereported speechindirect
The "past subjunctive" (irrealis) form were is also used by some as an alternative to the backshifted indicative was following if or whether in indirect speech or thought, for example:

Mary Shelley

MaryMary Wollstonecraft GodwinMary Wollstonecraft Shelley
… he asked me if I were about to return to London …(Mary Shelley, The Last Man, 1833)

The Last Man

… he asked me if I were about to return to London …(Mary Shelley, The Last Man, 1833)

Night of the Living Dead

1968 film of the same name19681968 horror film of the same name
Johnny asked me if I were afraid. (Barbara in Night of the Living Dead, 1968)