Enhanced Graphics Adapter

EGAEGA graphics16 colorsenhanced graphicsEnhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA)IBM Enhanced Graphics Adapter
The Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) is an IBM PC computer display standard from 1984 that superseded and exceeded the capabilities of the CGA standard introduced with the original IBM PC, and was itself superseded by the VGA standard in 1987.wikipedia
205 Related Articles

Video Graphics Array

VGAVGA graphicsVGA card
The Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) is an IBM PC computer display standard from 1984 that superseded and exceeded the capabilities of the CGA standard introduced with the original IBM PC, and was itself superseded by the VGA standard in 1987. The EGA standard was made obsolete by the introduction in 1987 of MCGA and VGA with the PS/2 computer line.
Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a graphics standard for video display controller first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, following CGA and EGA introduced in earlier IBM personal computers.

Color Graphics Adapter

CGACGA graphicsColor Graphics Adapter (CGA)
The Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) is an IBM PC computer display standard from 1984 that superseded and exceeded the capabilities of the CGA standard introduced with the original IBM PC, and was itself superseded by the VGA standard in 1987. EGA graphics modes are planar, as opposed to the interlaced CGA and Hercules modes.
It is this "RGBI with tweaked brown" palette, shown in the complete palette to the right, that all later PC graphics standards such as EGA and VGA have retained for compatibility as a power-on default setting of their internal palette registers and/or DAC registers.

Computer display standard

graphics modedisplay mode320x240
The Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) is an IBM PC computer display standard from 1984 that superseded and exceeded the capabilities of the CGA standard introduced with the original IBM PC, and was itself superseded by the VGA standard in 1987.

IBM Personal System/2

PS/2IBM PS/2Personal System/2
The EGA standard was made obsolete by the introduction in 1987 of MCGA and VGA with the PS/2 computer line.
This effectively replaced the previous EGA standard.

Video display controller

display controllergraphics chipVDP
The EGA card includes a 16 KB ROM to extend the system BIOS for additional graphics functions, and includes a custom CRT controller (CRTC) that has limited backward compatibility with the Motorola MC6845 chip used to generate video timing signals in earlier IBM PC graphics controllers.

Super VGA

SVGASVGA graphics800x600
Shortly before the introduction of VGA, Genoa Systems introduced a half-size graphics card built around a proprietary chip set, which they called Super EGA (later cards supporting an extended version of the VGA were similarly named Super VGA).
Although the number of colors is defined in the VBE specification, this is irrelevant when referring to Super VGA monitors as (in contrast to the old CGA and EGA standards) the interface between the video card and the VGA or Super VGA monitor uses simple analog voltages to indicate the desired color.

IBM Personal Computer/AT

IBM PC/ATIBM ATIBM PC AT
EGA was introduced in October 1984 by IBM, shortly after (but not exclusively for) its new PC/AT.

Multi-Color Graphics Array

MCGAMulticolor Graphics Adapter (MCGA)
The EGA standard was made obsolete by the introduction in 1987 of MCGA and VGA with the PS/2 computer line.
The PS/2 chipset's limited abilities prevents EGA compatibility and high-resolution multi-color VGA display modes.

IBM Personal Computer

IBM PCPCIBM-PC
The Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) is an IBM PC computer display standard from 1984 that superseded and exceeded the capabilities of the CGA standard introduced with the original IBM PC, and was itself superseded by the VGA standard in 1987.
In 1985, after the launch of the IBM AT, the new Enhanced Graphics Adapter became available which could support 320×200 or 640×200 in 16 colors in addition to high-resolution 640×350 16 color graphics.

ATI Technologies

ATIATI Technologies Inc.ACTI Tech
A few third-party EGA clones (notably the ATI Technologies and Paradise boards) feature a range of extended graphics modes (e.g., 640×400, 640×480 and 720×540), as well as automatic monitor type detection, and sometimes also a special 400-line interlace mode for use on CGA monitors.

D-subminiature

DE-9D-subDB-25
The EGA uses a female nine-pin D-subminiature (DE-9) connector which looks identical to the CGA connector.
A female 9-pin connector on an IBM compatible personal computer may be a video display output such as MDA, Hercules, CGA, or EGA (rarely VGA or others).

Video card

graphics cardgraphics cardsvideo cards
Standards such as MDA, CGA, HGC, Tandy, PGC, EGA, VGA, MCGA, 8514 or XGA were introduced from 1982 to 1990 and supported by a variety of hardware manufacturers.

List of monochrome and RGB palettes

4096 colors12-bit4096
When selecting a color from the EGA palette, two bits are used for the red, green and blue channels.

Text mode

text-onlytext-modetext version
EGA can drive an MDA monitor by a special setting of switches on the board (or by direct hardware programming—the switches only affect the operation of the BIOS); only 640×350 high-resolution monochrome graphics and the standard MDA text mode are available in this mode.

PC game

computer gamecomputer gamesPC
Commercial software began supporting EGA by 1986 and Sierra's King's Quest III was one of the earliest PC games to use it.
With the EGA video card, an inexpensive clone had better graphics and more memory for games than the Commodore or Apple, and the Tandy 1000's enhanced graphics, sound, and built-in joystick ports made it the best platform for IBM PC-compatible games before the VGA era.

Interlaced video

interlacedinterlaceinterlacing
A few third-party EGA clones (notably the ATI Technologies and Paradise boards) feature a range of extended graphics modes (e.g., 640×400, 640×480 and 720×540), as well as automatic monitor type detection, and sometimes also a special 400-line interlace mode for use on CGA monitors.
IBM's Monochrome Display Adapter and Enhanced Graphics Adapter as well as the Hercules Graphics Card and the original Macintosh computer generated video signals of 342 to 350p, at 50 to 60 Hz, with approximately 16MHz of bandwidth, some enhanced PC clones such as the AT&T 6300 (aka Olivetti M24) as well as computers made for the Japanese home market managed 400p instead at around 24MHz, and the Atari ST pushed that to 71Hz with 32MHz bandwidth - all of which required dedicated high-frequency (and usually single-mode, i.e. not "video"-compatible) monitors due to their increased line rates.

Chips and Technologies

C&TC&T 65555CHIPS
Its first product, announced September 1985, was a four chip EGA chipset that handled the functions of 19 of IBM's proprietary chips on the Enhanced Graphics Adapter.

Planar (computer graphics)

planarbit planebit-plane format
EGA graphics modes are planar, as opposed to the interlaced CGA and Hercules modes.
The EGA video adapter on early IBM PC computers uses planar arrangement in color graphical modes for this reason.

Professional Graphics Controller

Professional Graphics AdapterPGCIBM 5175
Introduced in 1984, the Professional Graphics Controller offered a maximum resolution of 640×480 with 256 colors at a refresh rate of 60 Hertz—a higher resolution and color depth than CGA and EGA supported.

Hold-And-Modify

HAMHAM-8HAM Mode
However, it was very simple graphics compared to Amiga computer OCS which can have up to 4096 colors in HAM mode, although Amiga games generally used only 32 colors during gameplay.
In comparison, the then IBM-PC standard EGA allowed 16 on-screen colors from a palette of 64.

King's Quest III

King's Quest III: To Heir Is HumanKing's Quest 3
Commercial software began supporting EGA by 1986 and Sierra's King's Quest III was one of the earliest PC games to use it.
King's Quest III was the first Sierra game to be DOS-based instead of using a self-booting disk, as well as the first to feature EGA and Hercules graphics support.

Motorola 6845

MC684568456545
The EGA card includes a 16 KB ROM to extend the system BIOS for additional graphics functions, and includes a custom CRT controller (CRTC) that has limited backward compatibility with the Motorola MC6845 chip used to generate video timing signals in earlier IBM PC graphics controllers.
Its functionality was duplicated and extended by custom circuits in the EGA and VGA PC video adapters.

List of 16-bit computer color palettes

List of 16-bit computer hardware palettes16 CGA colors256 simultaneous colors
The EGA palette allows all 16 CGA colors to be used simultaneously, and it allows substitution of each of these colors with any one from a total of 64 colors (two bits each for red, green and blue).
The Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) supports all CGA modes and add three more: two 320×200 and 640×200 graphic modes, both with the full CGA 16-color palette (intended to be used with the same "digital RGB" CGA color monitor of 200 scan lines) and an extra 640×350 graphic mode with 16 colors chosen from a 6-bit RGB (64 colors) palette for what IBM then called an "analog RGB" type monitor.