Enhanced interrogation techniques

enhanced interrogationtortureextended interrogation techniquesenhanced interrogation techniqueenhanced interrogationsCIA interrogationsenhanced interrogation methodsenhanced interrogation programextended interrogation methodextended interrogation methods
"Enhanced interrogation techniques" or "enhanced interrogation" is a euphemism for the U.S. government's program of systematic torture of detainees by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and various components of the U.S.wikipedia
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Euphemism

euphemisticeuphemisticallyeuphemism treadmill
"Enhanced interrogation techniques" or "enhanced interrogation" is a euphemism for the U.S. government's program of systematic torture of detainees by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and various components of the U.S. Armed Forces at black sites around the world, including Bagram, Guantanamo Bay, and Abu Ghraib, authorized by officials of the George W. Bush administration.

Defense Intelligence Agency (United States)

Defense Intelligence AgencyDIAU.S. Defense Intelligence Agency
"Enhanced interrogation techniques" or "enhanced interrogation" is a euphemism for the U.S. government's program of systematic torture of detainees by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and various components of the U.S. Armed Forces at black sites around the world, including Bagram, Guantanamo Bay, and Abu Ghraib, authorized by officials of the George W. Bush administration.
Because of the sensitive nature of its work, the spy organization has been embroiled in numerous controversies, including those related to its intelligence-gathering activities, to its role in torture, as well as to attempts to expand its activities on U.S. soil.

Waterboarding

waterboardedwater boardingwaterboard
Methods used included beating, binding in contorted stress positions, hooding, subjection to deafening noise, sleep disruption, sleep deprivation to the point of hallucination, deprivation of food, drink, and withholding medical care for wounds, as well as waterboarding, walling, sexual humiliation, subjection to extreme heat or extreme cold, and confinement in small coffin-like boxes.
In late 2007, it was widely reported that the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was waterboarding extrajudicial prisoners and that the Office of Legal Counsel, Department of Justice, had authorized the procedure among enhanced interrogation techniques.

Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse

Abu GhraibAbu Ghraib prisoner abuseAbu Ghraib scandal
"Enhanced interrogation techniques" or "enhanced interrogation" is a euphemism for the U.S. government's program of systematic torture of detainees by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and various components of the U.S. Armed Forces at black sites around the world, including Bagram, Guantanamo Bay, and Abu Ghraib, authorized by officials of the George W. Bush administration.
These documents, prepared shortly before the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States Department of Justice, authorized certain enhanced interrogation techniques, generally held to involve torture of foreign detainees.

Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture

report on CIA torturereportSenate Intelligence Committee's report on CIA torture
In December 2014, the U.S. Senate made public around 10% of the Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture, a report about the CIA's use of torture during the George W. Bush administration.
The Committee Study of the Central Intelligence Agency's Detention and Interrogation Program is a report compiled by the bipartisan United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)'s Detention and Interrogation Program and its use of various forms of torture ("enhanced interrogation techniques" in U.S. government communiqués) on detainees in CIA custody.

John Yoo

John C. YooYoo, John C.
Officials including Justice Department lawyer John Yoo recommended classifying them as "detainees" outside the protection of the Geneva Conventions or any other domestic or military law, and incarcerating them in special prisons instead of the barracks-like "prisoner-of-war camp you saw in Hogan's Heroes or Stalag 17."
He also authored the so-called Torture Memos, which provided a legal rationale for so-called "enhanced interrogation techniques", including waterboarding, which are widely considered torture.

James Elmer Mitchell

James MitchellJames E. MitchellJim Mitchell
In April 2002 the CIA had captured its first important prisoner, Abu Zubaydah, who was transferred to a CIA black site and at the suggestion of psychologist James Mitchell the CIA embarked on interrogation methods which included sleep deprivation using bright lights and loud music—still prior to any legal authorization from the US Justice Department. The authorized "enhanced interrogation" (the originator of this term is unknown, but it appears to be a calque of the German "verschärfte Vernehmung", meaning "intensified interrogation", used in 1937 by Gestapo chief Heinrich Müller ) was based on work done by James Elmer Mitchell and Bruce Jessen in the Air Force's Survival Evasion Resistance Escape (SERE) program.
From 2002, after his retirement from the military, to 2009 his company Mitchell Jessen and Associates received $81 million on contract from the CIA to carry out debriefings of detainees and to develop and conduct enhanced interrogation techniques.

George Tenet

George J. TenetTenetGeorge John Tenet
In May 2002, senior Bush administration officials including CIA Director George Tenet, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, Vice President Dick Cheney, Secretary of State Colin Powell, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, and Attorney General John Ashcroft met to discuss which techniques the CIA could legally use against Abu Zubaydah.
Tenet has been criticized for personally authorizing the CIA's use of brutal and ineffective torture techniques during his tenure, in contravention of international law.

2005 CIA interrogation videotapes destruction

2005 CIA interrogation tapes destructionwhich had destroyed videotapes2005 CIA interrogation tapes destruction scandal
In 2005, the CIA destroyed videotapes depicting prisoners being interrogated under torture; an internal justification was that what they showed was so horrific they would be "devastating to the CIA", and that "the heat from destroying is nothing compared to what it would be if the tapes ever got into public domain."
Twelve tapes depict interrogations using "enhanced interrogation", a euphemism for torture.

Donald Rumsfeld

Donald H. RumsfeldRumsfeldDon Rumsfeld
In May 2002, senior Bush administration officials including CIA Director George Tenet, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, Vice President Dick Cheney, Secretary of State Colin Powell, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, and Attorney General John Ashcroft met to discuss which techniques the CIA could legally use against Abu Zubaydah.
Rumsfeld's tenure was controversial for its use of torture and the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal.

Salt Pit

the dark prisonthe salt pitDark prison
A Senate Intelligence Committee found photos of a waterboard surrounded by buckets of water at the Salt Pit prison, where the CIA had claimed waterboarding was never used.
The Inspector General review also found that there were no guidelines for "enhanced interrogation techniques" at the site, and that some interrogators were "left to their own devices" with prisoners.

Bruce Jessen

John "Bruce" Jessen
The authorized "enhanced interrogation" (the originator of this term is unknown, but it appears to be a calque of the German "verschärfte Vernehmung", meaning "intensified interrogation", used in 1937 by Gestapo chief Heinrich Müller ) was based on work done by James Elmer Mitchell and Bruce Jessen in the Air Force's Survival Evasion Resistance Escape (SERE) program.
John Bruce Jessen (born July 28, 1949) is an American psychologist who, with James Elmer Mitchell, created the so-called "enhanced interrogation techniques" that were used in the interrogation of CIA detainees, as outlined in the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence's report on CIA torture.

Torture

torturedtorturingtorture device
"Enhanced interrogation techniques" or "enhanced interrogation" is a euphemism for the U.S. government's program of systematic torture of detainees by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and various components of the U.S. Armed Forces at black sites around the world, including Bagram, Guantanamo Bay, and Abu Ghraib, authorized by officials of the George W. Bush administration.
The U.S. Constitution and U.S. law prohibits the use of torture, yet such human rights violations occurred during the War on Terror under the euphemism Enhanced interrogation.

Abu Zubaydah

Zayn al-Abidn Muhammed Hasayn Abu ZubaydahAbu ZabaydaAbu Zabaydah
The CIA admits to waterboarding three people implicated in the September 11 attacks: Abu Zubaydah, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, and Mohammed al-Qahtani.
Zubaydah's perceived "value" as a detainee would later be used by President George W. Bush to justify the use of "enhanced interrogation techniques" and Zubaydah's detention in secret CIA prisons around the world.

Interrogation of Abu Zubaydah

the two methods of interrogating Zubaydahtorture of Abu Zubaydah
Mitchell and Jessen applied this idea to the interrogation of Abu Zubaydah.
Beginning in August 2002, Abu Zubaydah was the first prisoner to undergo "enhanced interrogation techniques."

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed

Khalid Shaikh MohammedKhalid Sheik MohammedKhalid Sheikh Mohammad
The CIA admits to waterboarding three people implicated in the September 11 attacks: Abu Zubaydah, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, and Mohammed al-Qahtani.
After just a "few minutes" of questioning at Cobalt, he was subject to "enhanced interrogation techniques".

Leon Panetta

Leon E. PanettaSecretary PanettaLeon Panetta Institute
American and European officials including former CIA Director Leon Panetta, former CIA officers, a Guantanamo prosecutor, and a military tribunal judge, have called "enhanced interrogation" a euphemism for torture.
In 2010 working with the Senate Intelligence Committee, he conducted a secret review of the use of torture by the CIA (euphemistically referred to as "enhanced interrogation techniques") during the administration of George W. Bush.

The Dark Side (book)

The Dark SideThe Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned into a War on American IdealsThe Dark Side'' (book)
Jane Mayer, author of The Dark Side, quotes Zelikow as predicting that "America's descent into torture will in time be viewed like the Japanese internments", in that "(f)ear and anxiety were exploited by zealots and fools."
The book details the origins of controversies such as the coercive interrogation program, in which detainees were tortured, and the NSA electronic surveillance program of domestic surveillance without court warrants.

Jane Mayer

Mayer, Jane
Jane Mayer, author of The Dark Side, quotes Zelikow as predicting that "America's descent into torture will in time be viewed like the Japanese internments", in that "(f)ear and anxiety were exploited by zealots and fools."
Mayer's third nonfiction book, The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned into a War on American Ideals (2008), addresses the origins, legal justifications, and possible war crimes liability of the use of enhanced interrogation techniques (commonly considered torture) on detainees and the subsequent deaths of detainees, sometimes victims of mistaken identity, under such interrogation by the CIA and DOD.

Geoffrey D. Miller

Geoffrey MillerGeneral Geoffrey Miller
On July 12, 2005, members of a military panel told the committee that they proposed disciplining prison commander Major General Geoffrey Miller over the interrogation of Mohammed al Qahtani, who was forced to wear a bra, dance with another man, and threatened with dogs.
He is noted for having trained soldiers in using torture, or "enhanced interrogation techniques" in US euphemism, and for carrying out the "First Special Interrogation Plan," signed by the Secretary of Defense, against a Guantanamo detainee.

Presidency of George W. Bush

Bush administrationGeorge W. Bush administrationadministration
"Enhanced interrogation techniques" or "enhanced interrogation" is a euphemism for the U.S. government's program of systematic torture of detainees by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and various components of the U.S. Armed Forces at black sites around the world, including Bagram, Guantanamo Bay, and Abu Ghraib, authorized by officials of the George W. Bush administration.
In hopes of obtaining information from the prisoners, Bush allowed the use of "enhanced interrogation techniques" such as waterboarding.

Nancy Pelosi

PelosiRep. Nancy PelosiNancy D'Alesandro Pelosi
These congressional leaders included Nancy Pelosi, the future Speaker of the House, and House Intelligence Committee Ranking Democrat Jane Harman.
In 2002, while Pelosi was the ranking member of the House Intelligence Committee, she was briefed on the ongoing use of "enhanced interrogation techniques", including waterboarding, authorized for a captured terrorist, Abu Zubaydah.

Jose Rodriguez (intelligence officer)

Jose RodriguezJose A. Rodriguez Jr.Jose A. Rodriguez, Jr.
Jose Rodriguez, head of the CIA's clandestine service, asked his superiors for authorization for what Rodriguez called an "alternative set of interrogation procedures."
They were subjected to what has been described as torture or enhanced interrogation techniques, according to the U.S. government.

Stress position

stress positionswall-standingcontorted positions
Methods used included beating, binding in contorted stress positions, hooding, subjection to deafening noise, sleep disruption, sleep deprivation to the point of hallucination, deprivation of food, drink, and withholding medical care for wounds, as well as waterboarding, walling, sexual humiliation, subjection to extreme heat or extreme cold, and confinement in small coffin-like boxes.
Forcing prisoners to adopt such positions is an enhanced interrogation technique (torture technique) used for extracting information.

White torture

White torture in IranWhite torture # Iran
Some of these techniques fall under the category known as "white torture."
The United States has been accused by Amnesty International and other international human rights organizations of using "extreme isolation and sensory deprivation ... detainees confined to windowless cells ... days without seeing daylight" along with other torture techniques with the approval of the George W. Bush administration under the euphemism "enhanced interrogation."