Enlightenment in Buddhism

enlightenmentbodhiawakeningenlightenedliberationBuddhist enlightenmentsambodhiawakeawakenedbudhi
The English term enlightenment is the western translation of the abstract noun bodhi, (Sanskrit: बोधि; Pali: bodhi), the knowledge or wisdom, or awakened intellect, of a Buddha.wikipedia
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Satori

enlightenmentaware of
The term is also being used to translate several other Buddhist terms and concepts, which are used to denote (initial) insight (prajna (Sanskrit), wu (Chinese), kensho and satori(Japanese)); knowledge (vidhya); the "blowing out" (Nirvana) of disturbing emotions and desires and the subsequent freedom or release (vimutti); and the attainment of supreme Buddhahood (samyak sam bodhi), as exemplified by Gautama Buddha. Kensho and Satori are Japanese terms used in Zen traditions.
Satori is a Japanese Buddhist term for awakening, "comprehension; understanding".

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddhadharma
Although the term buddhi is also used in other Indian philosophies and traditions, its most common usage is in the context of Buddhism.
He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, and attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way (Skt.

Enlightenment (spiritual)

enlightenmentspiritual enlightenmentspiritual awakening
In the western world the concept of (spiritual) enlightenment has taken on a romantic meaning.
It translates several Buddhist terms and concepts, most notably bodhi, kensho and satori.

Buddhahood

BuddhaBuddhasSamyaksambuddha
The term is also being used to translate several other Buddhist terms and concepts, which are used to denote (initial) insight (prajna (Sanskrit), wu (Chinese), kensho and satori(Japanese)); knowledge (vidhya); the "blowing out" (Nirvana) of disturbing emotions and desires and the subsequent freedom or release (vimutti); and the attainment of supreme Buddhahood (samyak sam bodhi), as exemplified by Gautama Buddha.
In Theravada Buddhism, Buddha refers to one who has become awake through their own efforts and insight, without a teacher to point out the dharma (Sanskrit; Pali dhamma; "right way of living").

Kenshō

kenshoenlightenmentjiànxìng
The term is also being used to translate several other Buddhist terms and concepts, which are used to denote (initial) insight (prajna (Sanskrit), wu (Chinese), kensho and satori(Japanese)); knowledge (vidhya); the "blowing out" (Nirvana) of disturbing emotions and desires and the subsequent freedom or release (vimutti); and the attainment of supreme Buddhahood (samyak sam bodhi), as exemplified by Gautama Buddha. Kensho and Satori are Japanese terms used in Zen traditions.
"Kenshō" is commonly translated as enlightenment, a word that is also used to translate bodhi, prajna, satori and buddhahood.

Four stages of enlightenment

Anāgāminsenlightenmentfour stages
In Theravada Buddhism, bodhi refers to the realisation of the four stages of enlightenment and becoming an Arahant.
The four stages of enlightenment in Theravada and Early Buddhism are the four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment as an Arahant.

Buddhi

intellect
Although the term buddhi is also used in other Indian philosophies and traditions, its most common usage is in the context of Buddhism.
The same root is the basis for the more familiar masculine form Buddha and the abstract noun bodhi.

Nirvana (Buddhism)

NirvanaNibbanaNibbāna
The term is also being used to translate several other Buddhist terms and concepts, which are used to denote (initial) insight (prajna (Sanskrit), wu (Chinese), kensho and satori(Japanese)); knowledge (vidhya); the "blowing out" (Nirvana) of disturbing emotions and desires and the subsequent freedom or release (vimutti); and the attainment of supreme Buddhahood (samyak sam bodhi), as exemplified by Gautama Buddha.
Collins notes that the first type, nirvana in this life is also called bodhi (awakening), nirvana of the defilements or kilesa-(pari)nibbana, and arhatship while nirvana after death is also referred to as the nirvana of the Aggregates, khandha-(pari)nibbana.

Buddhist paths to liberation

maggaPathmarga
The way to Buddhahood is somewhat differently understood in the various buddhist traditions.
The Buddhist path (magga) to liberation, also referred to as Enlightenment in Buddhism, is described in a wide variety of ways.

Gautama Buddha

BuddhaSakyamuniShakyamuni
The term is also being used to translate several other Buddhist terms and concepts, which are used to denote (initial) insight (prajna (Sanskrit), wu (Chinese), kensho and satori(Japanese)); knowledge (vidhya); the "blowing out" (Nirvana) of disturbing emotions and desires and the subsequent freedom or release (vimutti); and the attainment of supreme Buddhahood (samyak sam bodhi), as exemplified by Gautama Buddha.
He is believed by Buddhists to be an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering.

Vipassanā

Vipassanavipaśyanāinsight
"Insight" is equivalent to vipassana', insight into the three marks of existence, namely anicca, dukkha and anatta.
Out of these debates developed the idea that bare insight suffices to reach liberation, by discerning the Three marks (qualities) of (human) existence (tilakkhana), namely dukkha (suffering), anatta (non-self) and anicca (impermanence).

Four Noble Truths

The Four Noble Truthstrutharises
Insight into the Four Noble Truths is here called awakening.
This "liberating insight" gained a prominent place in the sutras, and the four truths came to represent this liberating insight, as a part of the enlightenment story of the Buddha.

Pratyekabuddha

paccekabuddhapratyeka buddhasolitary Buddha
A pratyekabuddha or paccekabuddha (Sanskrit and Pali, respectively), literally "a lone buddha", "a buddha on their own", "a private buddha", or "a silent buddha", is one of three types of enlightened beings according to some schools of Buddhism.

Mahayana

Mahayana BuddhismMahāyānaMahayana Buddhist
In Mahayana Buddhism, bodhi is equal to prajna, insight into the Buddha-nature, sunyata and tathatā. In Mahāyāna Buddhism the Bodhisattva is the ideal.
A samyaksaṃbuddha can establish the Dharma and lead disciples to enlightenment.

Self-realization

Realizationself realizationself-realisation
It has become synonymous with self-realization and the true self and false self, being regarded as a substantial essence being covered over by social conditioning.
Though the tathagatagarbha-teachings seem to teach the existence of a separate self, they point to the inherent possibility of attaining awakening, not to the existence of a separate self.

Four Right Exertions

Four Right Effortsnurturing of wholesome states4 Right Exertions
Polak and Arbel, following scholars like Vetter and Bronkhorst, argue that right effort, c.q. the four right efforts (sense restraint, preventing the arising of unwholesome states, and the generation of wholesome states), mindfulness, and dhyana form an integrated practice, in which dhyana is the actualisation of insight, leading to an awakened awareness which is "non-reactive and lucid."
The Four Right Exertions (also known as, Four Proper Exertions, Four Right Efforts, Four Great Efforts, Four Right Endeavors or Four Right Strivings) (Pali: '; Skt.: ' or ) are an integral part of the Buddhist path to Enlightenment.

Nichiren Buddhism

Nichiren BuddhistNichirenNichiren sect
Nichiren Buddhism regards Buddhahood as a state of perfect freedom, in which one is awakened to the eternal and ultimate truth that is the reality of all things.
Nichiren Buddhism focuses on the Lotus Sutra doctrine that all people have an innate Buddha-nature and are therefore inherently capable of attaining enlightenment in their current form and present lifetime.

Arhat

arahantarhatsArahants
In Theravada Buddhism, bodhi refers to the realisation of the four stages of enlightenment and becoming an Arahant.
Mahayana Buddhist traditions have used the term for people far advanced along the path of Enlightenment, but who may not have reached full Buddhahood.

Seven Factors of Awakening

Seven Factors of EnlightenmentBojjhangabojjhaṅgā
Polak and Arbel, following scholars like Vetter and Bronkhorst, argue that right effort, c.q. the four right efforts (sense restraint, preventing the arising of unwholesome states, and the generation of wholesome states), mindfulness, and dhyana form an integrated practice, in which dhyana is the actualisation of insight, leading to an awakened awareness which is "non-reactive and lucid."
The Pali word bojjhanga is a compound of bodhi ("awakening," "enlightenment") and anga ("factor").

Zen

Zen BuddhismZen BuddhistChan
Kensho and Satori are Japanese terms used in Zen traditions.
Zen teachings point to the moon, awakening, "a realization of the unimpeded interpenetration of the dharmadhatu".

Ratnagotravibhāga

RatnagotravibhagaUttaratantraRatnagotravibhanga
This vision is expounded in texts such as the Shurangama Sutra and the Uttaratantra.
Gotra evolved in Buddhism to first different spiritual lineages one of which (rather controversially within the broader tradition) according to their spiritual predisposition and constitution were doomed to cycle endlessly in the wheel of saṃsāra without the intervention of a bodhisattva, that is they would never attain bodhi of their own volition, that doctrine in turn eventually evolved into the doctrine of Jina.

Bodhisattva

BodhisattvasBoddhisattvaBoddhisatva
In Mahāyāna Buddhism the Bodhisattva is the ideal.
This definition is given as the following: "Because he has bodhi as his aim, a bodhisattva-mahāsattva is so called."

Dhyāna in Buddhism

jhanadhyānadhyana
Polak and Arbel, following scholars like Vetter and Bronkhorst, argue that right effort, c.q. the four right efforts (sense restraint, preventing the arising of unwholesome states, and the generation of wholesome states), mindfulness, and dhyana form an integrated practice, in which dhyana is the actualisation of insight, leading to an awakened awareness which is "non-reactive and lucid." It may probably have involved the knowledge that liberation was attained by the combination of mindfulness and dhyāna, applied to the understanding of the arising and ceasing of craving.
There is a tradition that stresses attaining insight (bodhi, prajna, kensho) as the means to awakening and liberation.

Fetter (Buddhism)

ten fettersfettersfetter
It involves the abandonment of the ten fetters and the cessation of dukkha or suffering.
As indicated below, eradication of these three fetters is a canonical indicator of one's being irreversibly established on the path to Enlightenment.

Saṅkhāra

formationssankharasankhāra
The cessation of all such sankharas () is synonymous with Awakening (bodhi), the attainment of nirvana.