Enrico Fermi

FermiE. FermiFermi, EnricoFermi awardFirst Nuclear Reaction
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian–American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.wikipedia
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Chicago Pile-1

Chicago PileCP-1Chicago Pile 1
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian–American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
On 2 December 1942, the first human-made self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction was initiated in CP-1, during an experiment led by Enrico Fermi.

Atomic Age

nuclear ageAtomic Eraatomic-age
He has been called the "architect of the nuclear age" and the "architect of the atomic bomb".
The first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction (Chicago Pile-1, or CP-1) took place in December 1942 under the leadership of Enrico Fermi.

Fermi's interaction

Fermi coupling constantFermi constanttheory of beta decay
His theory, later referred to as Fermi's interaction and now called weak interaction, described one of the four fundamental interactions in nature.
In particle physics, Fermi's interaction (also the Fermi theory of beta decay or the Fermi four-fermion interaction) is an explanation of the beta decay, proposed by Enrico Fermi in 1933.

Fermi–Dirac statistics

Fermi–Dirac distributionFermi–DiracFermi-Dirac distribution
After Wolfgang Pauli formulated his exclusion principle in 1925, Fermi followed with a paper in which he applied the principle to an ideal gas, employing a statistical formulation now known as Fermi–Dirac statistics.
It is named after Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac, each of whom discovered the method independently (although Fermi defined the statistics earlier than Dirac).

X-10 Graphite Reactor

Clinton PileGraphite ReactorX-10
He was on hand when the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, went critical in 1943, and when the B Reactor at the Hanford Site did so the next year.
Formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, it was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after Enrico Fermi's Chicago Pile-1), and the first designed and built for continuous operation.

History of the Teller–Ulam design

Teller's "Super" bombSuperTeller–Ulam design
At Los Alamos, he headed F Division, part of which worked on Edward Teller's thermonuclear "Super" bomb.
The idea of using the energy from a fission device to begin a fusion reaction was first proposed by the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi to his colleague Edward Teller in the fall of 1941 during what would soon become the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort by the United States and United Kingdom to develop the first nuclear weapons.

Edward Teller

TellerDr. Edward TellerEde Teller
At Los Alamos, he headed F Division, part of which worked on Edward Teller's thermonuclear "Super" bomb.
His extension of Enrico Fermi's theory of beta decay, in the form of Gamow–Teller transitions, provided an important stepping stone in its application, while the Jahn–Teller effect and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory have retained their original formulation and are still mainstays in physics and chemistry.

Quantum mechanics

quantum physicsquantum mechanicalquantum theory
He made significant contributions to the development of statistical mechanics, quantum theory, and nuclear and particle physics.
The foundations of quantum mechanics were established during the first half of the 20th century by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Albert Einstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, John von Neumann, Paul Dirac, Enrico Fermi, Wolfgang Pauli, Max von Laue, Freeman Dyson, David Hilbert, Wilhelm Wien, Satyendra Nath Bose, Arnold Sommerfeld, and.

List of things named after Enrico Fermi

named after Fermi
Many awards, concepts, and institutions are named after Fermi, including the Enrico Fermi Award, the Enrico Fermi Institute, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station, and the synthetic element fermium, making him one of 16 scientists who have elements named after them.
Enrico Fermi (1901–1954), an Italian-born, naturalized American physicist, is the eponym of the topics listed below.

Manhattan Project

Manhattan Engineer DistrictThe Manhattan ProjectManhattan District
He emigrated to the United States, where he worked on the Manhattan Project during World War II.
It urged the United States to take steps to acquire stockpiles of uranium ore and accelerate the research of Enrico Fermi and others into nuclear chain reactions.

Uranium

UU 2 U(VI)
After bombarding thorium and uranium with slow neutrons, he concluded that he had created new elements.
Research by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, Enrico Fermi and others, such as J. Robert Oppenheimer starting in 1934 led to its use as a fuel in the nuclear power industry and in Little Boy, the first nuclear weapon used in war.

Nuclear reactor

nuclear reactorsreactorreactors
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian–American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
Eventually, the first artificial nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1, was constructed at the University of Chicago, by a team led by Italian physicist Enrico Fermi, in late 1942.

Italian Americans

Italian-AmericanItalianItalian American
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian–American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
The work of Enrico Fermi was crucial in developing the atom bomb.

Neutrino

neutrinosantineutrinoneutrino mass
Fermi took up this idea, developing a model that incorporated the postulated particle, which he named the "neutrino".
The word "neutrino" entered the scientific vocabulary through Enrico Fermi, who used it during a conference in Paris in July 1932 and at the Solvay Conference in October 1933, where Pauli also employed it.

Enrico Fermi Institute

Institute for Nuclear StudiesEnrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear StudiesEnrico Fermi Institute of Nuclear Studies
Many awards, concepts, and institutions are named after Fermi, including the Enrico Fermi Award, the Enrico Fermi Institute, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station, and the synthetic element fermium, making him one of 16 scientists who have elements named after them.
Physicist Enrico Fermi was heavily involved in the founding years of the institute, and it was at his request that Allison took the position as the first director.

B Reactor

Hanford B ReactorB Reactor National Historic LandmarkB-Reactor
He was on hand when the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, went critical in 1943, and when the B Reactor at the Hanford Site did so the next year.
The reactor was designed and built by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company based on experimental designs tested by Enrico Fermi at the University of Chicago, and tests from the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Fermium

Fm100Unnilnilium
Many awards, concepts, and institutions are named after Fermi, including the Enrico Fermi Award, the Enrico Fermi Institute, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station, and the synthetic element fermium, making him one of 16 scientists who have elements named after them.
It was discovered in the debris of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952, and named after Enrico Fermi, one of the pioneers of nuclear physics.

Franco Rasetti

RasettiFranco Dino Rasetti
At the Scuola Normale Superiore Fermi played pranks with fellow student Franco Rasetti; the two became close friends and collaborators.
Franco Dino Rasetti (August 10, 1901 – December 5, 2001) was an Italian physicist who, together with Enrico Fermi, discovered key processes leading to nuclear fission.

Nuclear chain reaction

chain reactionpredetonationreactivity
Fermi led the team that designed and built Chicago Pile-1, which went critical on 2 December 1942, demonstrating the first human-created, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
In parallel, Szilárd and Enrico Fermi in New York made the same analysis.

Weak interaction

weak forceweakweak nuclear force
His theory, later referred to as Fermi's interaction and now called weak interaction, described one of the four fundamental interactions in nature.
In 1933, Enrico Fermi proposed the first theory of the weak interaction, known as Fermi's interaction.

Fermi problem

Fermi estimateFermi methodFermi estimation
He was present at the Trinity test on 16 July 1945, where he used his Fermi method to estimate the bomb's yield.
The estimation technique is named after physicist Enrico Fermi as he was known for his ability to make good approximate calculations with little or no actual data.

Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

Scuola Normale SuperioreScuola Normale di PisaScuola Normale
Fermi graduated from high school in July 1918, and at Amidei's urging applied to the Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa.
Eminent personalities from the world of science, literature and politics have studied at the Normale, among them Giosuè Carducci, Carlo Rubbia, Enrico Fermi and Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, as well as Alessio Figalli, in more recent times.

Fermion

fermionsFermionichalf-integer spin
Today, particles that obey the exclusion principle are called "fermions".
The name fermion was coined by English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac from the surname of Italian physicist Enrico Fermi.

Neutron

neutronsfree neutronn
Through experiments inducing radioactivity with the recently discovered neutron, Fermi discovered that slow neutrons were more easily captured by atomic nuclei than fast ones, and he developed the Fermi age equation to describe this.
The origins of beta radiation were explained by Enrico Fermi in 1934 by the process of beta decay, in which the neutron decays to a proton by creating an electron and a (as yet undiscovered) neutrino.

Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

FermiFermi Space TelescopeGLAST
Many awards, concepts, and institutions are named after Fermi, including the Enrico Fermi Award, the Enrico Fermi Institute, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station, and the synthetic element fermium, making him one of 16 scientists who have elements named after them.
Fermi gained its new name in 2008: On 26 August 2008, GLAST was renamed the "Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope" in honor of Enrico Fermi, a pioneer in high-energy physics.