Environmental epidemiology

environmentalenvironmental epidemiologist
Environmental epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology concerned with determining how environmental exposures impact human health.wikipedia
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Epidemiology

epidemiologistepidemiologicalepidemiologists
Environmental epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology concerned with determining how environmental exposures impact human health. Generally considered to be the father of epidemiology, John Snow conducted perhaps the first environmental epidemiology study in 1854.
Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.

Occupational epidemiology

Occupational epidemiology methods are common to methods used in environmental epidemiology.

International Society for Environmental Epidemiology

International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE)The International Society for Environmental Epidemiology
The International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE) is a scientific society with membership drawn from more than 60 countries, dedicated to the study of environmental epidemiology and exposure assessment.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
The World Health Organization European Centre for Environment and Health (WHO-ECEH) claims that 1.4 million deaths per year in Europe alone are due to avoidable environmental exposures.

Microbiology

microbiologistmicrobiologicalbacteriology
Environmental exposures can be broadly categorized into those that are proximate (e.g., directly leading to a health condition), including chemicals, physical agents, and microbiological pathogens, and those that are distal (e.g., indirectly leading to a health condition), such as socioeconomic conditions, climate change, and other broad-scale environmental changes.

Pathogen

pathogenspathogenicpathogenicity
Environmental exposures can be broadly categorized into those that are proximate (e.g., directly leading to a health condition), including chemicals, physical agents, and microbiological pathogens, and those that are distal (e.g., indirectly leading to a health condition), such as socioeconomic conditions, climate change, and other broad-scale environmental changes.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
Environmental exposures can be broadly categorized into those that are proximate (e.g., directly leading to a health condition), including chemicals, physical agents, and microbiological pathogens, and those that are distal (e.g., indirectly leading to a health condition), such as socioeconomic conditions, climate change, and other broad-scale environmental changes.

Environmental change

change in its environmentenvironment changingenvironmental
Environmental exposures can be broadly categorized into those that are proximate (e.g., directly leading to a health condition), including chemicals, physical agents, and microbiological pathogens, and those that are distal (e.g., indirectly leading to a health condition), such as socioeconomic conditions, climate change, and other broad-scale environmental changes.

Vulnerability index

Vulnerability
Vulnerability is the summation of all risk and protective factors that ultimately determine whether an individual or subpopulation experiences adverse health outcomes when an exposure to an environmental agent occurs.

Pre-existing condition

pre-existing conditionspreexisting conditionpre-existing medical condition
Biological sensitivity may be related to developmental stage, pre-existing medical conditions, acquired factors, and genetic factors.

Genetic disorder

genetic diseasegenetic disordersgenetic diseases
Biological sensitivity may be related to developmental stage, pre-existing medical conditions, acquired factors, and genetic factors.

Hippocrates

HippocraticHippocrates of CosHippocrates of Kos
Acknowledgement that the environment impacts human health can be found as far back as 460 B.C. in Hippocrates' essay On Airs, Waters, and Places.

Lead poisoning

leadlead contaminationlead exposure
Another famous example of environment-health interaction is the lead poisoning experienced by the ancient Romans, who used lead in their water pipes and kitchen pottery.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
Another famous example of environment-health interaction is the lead poisoning experienced by the ancient Romans, who used lead in their water pipes and kitchen pottery.

Vitruvius

Marcus Vitruvius PollioVitruvianVitruv
Vitruvius, a roman architect, wrote to discourage the use of lead pipes, citing health concerns:

Architect

architectsarchitectural firmmaster builder
Vitruvius, a roman architect, wrote to discourage the use of lead pipes, citing health concerns:

John Snow

Dr John SnowDr. John SnowJohn Snow (physician)
Generally considered to be the father of epidemiology, John Snow conducted perhaps the first environmental epidemiology study in 1854.

Cholera

Asiatic choleracholera epidemicA cholera epidemic breaks out
He showed that London residents who drank sewage-contaminated water were more likely to develop cholera than those who drank clean water.

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic ActFood, Drug and Cosmetic ActFederal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides